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Investigation into the environmental factors that drive microbial diversity in the soils of the Miers Valley, Mt Erebus, Bratina Island and Beacon Valley
Entry ID: K023_2007_2008_NZ_1


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Summary
Abstract: In this study, the active microbial component in the Dry Valleys system was characterized using newly developed molecular techniques with the aid of in situ augmentation and cloches (wind protection) which dampen the effects of the extreme weather conditions unique to the ecosystem. The aim was to ascertain those bacteria that are truly functional and to understand the environmental factors driving the incredible microbial diversity in this system. 152 mineral soil samples and 145 hypolith samples were collected from the Miers Valley. Two mummified seal tissue samples were also collected. Mineral soil samples were collected from Battleship Promontory and from the Upper Wright Valley. Some rock samples were also collected from Battleship Promontory, Marble Point and the Upper Wright Valley. Soil samples were also used for in situ augmentation and stable isotope probing (SIP) experiments in conjunction with cloches. Specific experiments include: 1) Microbial biomass was determined by in situ ATP analysis. 2) The drivers for microbial diversity were identified from collected soil samples subjected to in situ incubation after augmentation of carbon (glucose), nitrogen (NH4Cl), water (deionized and sterile) or combinations of these potential drivers. ATP levels and CO2 flux were measured for augmented samples over time to monitor the effect of those augmentations on overall biomass and activity and then analysed further using molecular techniques. 3) SIP analysis was used to augment microbial communities in soil, followed by extraction of total DNA. Organisms that are alive and active and respond to the addition of the isotope incorporate it into their DNA. 4) Cloches were used to trap heat from solar radiation and provide shelter from cooling winds. In situ soil augmentation and SIP experiments were placed in cloches to dampen the effects of extreme weather on the samples and to maximize solar gain. 5) DNA and RNA were extracted to provide zero-time controls. 6) The quality of water present in the soil was determined by measuring water activity and water potential. 7) The flux of CO2 out of the augmented (under seal or hypolith) soil compared to an unaugmented control was measured. 8) Replicate hypolith samples of structurally different classes were sampled and subsequently weighed for carbon and nitrogen analysis. Data loggers measured temperature, soil humidity and incident light over a 7 day period. Sensors were deployed for long term measurments. Collected samples (comprising DNA extracts, soil samples, mummified seal tissue samples, RNALater-stabilised soil samples, rock samples, hypolith samples) were returned to the University of Waikato.

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Link: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
Link: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
Description: The investigators homepage


Parent DIF
This data set description is a member of a collection. The collection is described in
K023_2004_2008_NZ_1


Geographic Coverage
 N: -78.0943 S: -78.0943  E: 163.812  W: 163.812
 Min Altitude: 171  Max Altitude: 1024  Min Depth: 0.01  Max Depth: 0.3
 N: -77.5188 S: -77.5188  E: 160.7636  W: 160.7636
 Min Altitude: 171  Max Altitude: 1024  Min Depth: 0.01  Max Depth: 0.3
 N: -76.9116 S: -76.9116  E: 160.9113  W: 160.9113
 Min Altitude: 171  Max Altitude: 1024  Min Depth: 0.01  Max Depth: 0.3

Temporal Coverage
Start Date: 2008-01-02
Stop Date: 2008-02-22


Location Keywords
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > BATTLESHIP PROMONTORY
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > MIERS VALLEY
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > WRIGHT VALLEY
GEOGRAPHIC REGION > POLAR


Science Keywords
LAND SURFACE >SOILS >MICRONUTRIENTS/TRACE ELEMENTS    [Definition]
LAND SURFACE >SOILS >SOIL MOISTURE/WATER CONTENT    [Definition]
LAND SURFACE >SOILS >SOIL PRODUCTIVITY    [Definition]
LAND SURFACE >SOILS >SOIL TEMPERATURE    [Definition]
LAND SURFACE >SOILS >MICROFLORA    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS >COMMUNITY DYNAMICS >BIODIVERSITY FUNCTIONS    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS >COMMUNITY DYNAMICS >COMMUNITY STRUCTURE    [Definition]


ISO Topic Category
BIOTA
ENVIRONMENT
GEOSCIENTIFIC INFORMATION


Platform
FIELD SURVEYS    [Information]
LABORATORY    [Information]


Instrument
SOIL MOISTURE PROBE    [Information]
SOIL SAMPLER    [Information]
SOIL TEMPERATURE PROBE    [Information]


Project
LTER >Long-Term Ecological Research    [Information]
LGP >Latitudinal Gradient Project    [Information]
IPY >INTERNATIONAL POLAR YEAR    [Information]
EBA >Evolution and Biodiversity in the Antarctic    [Information]


Quality
Rocks and sand were collected from the Miers Valley, Upper Wright Valley and Battleship Promontory. All of the collected samples are stored at the University of Waikato, Hamilton New Zealand in a PC2 containment facility. Various amounts of the samples are held at the University of Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa. The samples are stored at -80C. The samples were used for DNA analysis and this analysis uses very little material. Therefore, most if not all, of the samples still exist.

Please contact the investigator for more information.


Data Set Progress
IN WORK


Data Center
Antarctica New Zealand, New Zealand Antarctic Institute, New Zealand    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://www.antarcticanz.govt.nz/

Data Center Personnel
Name: SHULAMIT GORDON
Phone: +64 3 358 0200
Fax: +64 3 358 0211
Email: s.gordon at antarcticanz.govt.nz
Contact Address:
Antarctica New Zealand
Private Bag 4745
City: Christchurch
Country: New Zealand


Personnel
CRAIG CARY
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: +64 7 838 4593
Fax: +64 7 838 4218
Email: caryc at UDel.Edu
Email: c.cary at waikato.ac.nz
Contact Address:
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Waikato
PO BOX 3105
City: Hamilton
Postal Code: 3105
Country: New Zealand


DON COWAN
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: +27 (21) 959 2083
Fax: +27 (21) 959 3505
Email: dcowan at uwc.ac.za
Contact Address:
Department of Biotechnology
University of the Western Cape
Bellville
City: Cape Town
Postal Code: 7535
Country: SOUTH AFRICA


CEISHA POIROT
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Phone: +64 3 358 0200
Fax: +64 3 358 0211
Email: c.poirot at antarcticanz.govt.nz
Contact Address:
Antarctica New Zealand
Private Bag 4745
City: Christchurch
Country: New Zealand


SHULAMIT GORDON
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Phone: +64 3 358 0200
Fax: +64 3 358 0211
Email: s.gordon at antarcticanz.govt.nz
Contact Address:
Antarctica New Zealand
Private Bag 4745
City: Christchurch
Country: New Zealand


Publications/References
Cowan, D.A. Ah Tow, L. Smith, J.J. Cary, C. Moodley, K. 2005 Microbial molecular ecology of continental Antarctic biotopes. Antarctica: Global Laboratory for Scientific and International Collaboration. Tan, A., Yasin, Z., Mansor, M.(eds), Kuala Lumpur Academy of Sciences Malaysia

Adams, B.J. Bardgett, R.D. Ayres, E. Wall, D.H. Aislabie, J. Bamforth, S. Bargagli, R. Cary, C. Cavacini, P. Connell, L. Convey, P. Fell, J.W. Frati, F. Hogg, I. Newsham, K.K. O’Donnell, A. Russell, N. Seppelt, R.D. Stevens, M.I. 2006 Diversity and distribution of Victoria Land biota. Soil biology and biochemistry 38(10): 3003-3018 doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2006.04.030

Barrett, J.E. Virginia, R.A. Wall, D.H. Cary, S.C. Adams, B.J. Hacker, A.L. Aislabie, J.M. 2006 Co-variation in soil biodiversity and biogeochemistry in northern and southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Antarctic science 18(4): 535-548 doi: 10.1017/S0954102006000587

Hogg, I.D. Cary, S.C. Convey, P. Newsham, K.K. O’Donnell, A.G. Adams, B.J. Aislabie, J. Frati, F. Stevens, M.I. Wall, D.H. 2006 Biotic interactions in Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems: Are they a factor? Soil biology and biochemistry 38(10): 3035-3040 doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2006.04.026

Smith, J.J. Ah Tow, L. Baker, G. Cary, C. Cowan, D.A. 2006 Bacterial diversity in three different Antarctic cold desert mineral soils. Microbial ecology 51(4): 413-421

Cowan, D.A. Casanueva, A. Stafford, W. 2007 Ecology and biodiversity of cold-adapted organisms. In: Physiology and biochemistry of extremophiles. Gerday, C., Glansdorff, N.(eds), Washington, DC. ASM Press

Cowan, D.A. Casanueva, A. Stafford, W. 2007 Ecology and biodiversity of cold-adapted organisms. In: Physiology and biochemistry of extremophiles. Gerday, C., Glansdorff, N.(eds), Washington, DC. ASM Press

Niederberger, T.D. McDonald, I.R. Hacker, A.L. Soo, R.M. Barrett, J.E. Wall, D.H. Cary, C. 2008 Microbial community composition in soils of Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica Environmental microbiology 10(7): 1713-1624 doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2008.01593.x

Wood, S.A. Rueckert, A. Cowan, D.A. Cary, S.C. 2008 Sources of edaphic cyanobacterial diversity in the Dry Valleys of Eastern Antarctica. The ISME journal 2: 308-320 doi:10.1038/ismej.2007.104

Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2009-04-30
Last DIF Revision Date: 2009-07-02


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