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Determination of the unique evolutionary patterns that prevail in the Antarctic springtail (Gomphiocephalus hodgsoni)
Entry ID: K025_2006_2007_NZ


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Summary
Abstract: The energetic budgets (activity) of Antarctic springtails (Gomphiocephalus hodgsoni) was investigated at Cape Bird, Ross Island and the Garwood Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys to determine the unique genetic, co-evolutionary and metabolic patterns/rates that evolved in polar invertebrates across sites in Antarctica. The activity of arthropods (mites and springtails) was measured with pitfall trapping which determines how activity varies through the day. 10 traps were sunk into the ground at two sites (5 at each site, ~1m apart), vegetated and non-vegetated, and checked twice daily for arthropods. Growth enclosures were used to determine the growth of springtails. Springtails were separated into two different size classes (first season: >250µm and <250µm, second season: >500µm and <500µm) and placed into the enclosures in groups (first season: 30 individiuals, second season: 50 individuals). Photographs were taken of individuals prior to addition to enclosure, at various times throughout the season and at the termination of time in the enclosure. The metabolic rate of individuals was measured with a fibre optic oxygen sensing system to measure drop in oxygen over time within a sealed chamber. Samples were conducted on field fresh samples at various stages throughout the seasons (i.e. between November to end of January to determine change in metabolic rate over time). Each metabolic run lasted for a set period of time (first season: 3 hour period, 12 hour period, second season: 2 hour period) during which percentage oxygen in the chamber was recorded continuously and the drop in oxygen over time calculated from the slope of the resulting graph. Temperature was held constant at 10°C. All individuals were photographed after metabolic rate measurements for later size determination. In addition to these experiments, a heating experiment to determine if an increase in temperature corresponded to an increase in metabolic activity was undertaken. The experiment followed one population of springtails through a temperature transition from 6, 12, 18 and 24°C and three populations that came straight from the field temperature to experimental temperatures. An acclimated experiment was also used where several individuals were incubated at 10°C for a five day period. Metabolic readings were then undertaken. Photographs in both additional experiments were taken before and after measurements. Molecular DNA markers (mtDNA and nuclear) were used to examine haplotypes of samples of multiple individuals.

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Link: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE


Geographic Coverage
 N: -77.2191 S: -77.2222  E: 166.4467  W: 166.4383
 Min Altitude: 50  Max Altitude: 70
 N: -78.0167 S: -78.0167  E: 163.9333  W: 163.9333

Temporal Coverage
Start Date: 2006-11-29
Stop Date: 2008-01-23

Start Date: 2008-12-23
Stop Date: 2009-01-20


Location Keywords
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > CAPE BIRD
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > GARWOOD VALLEY
GEOGRAPHIC REGION > POLAR


Science Keywords
BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION >ANIMALS/INVERTEBRATES >ARTHROPODS >HEXAPODS >ENTOGNATHA
BIOSPHERE >ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS >SPECIES/POPULATION INTERACTIONS >SPECIES LIFE HISTORY    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS >SPECIES/POPULATION INTERACTIONS >POPULATION DYNAMICS    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS >ECOSYSTEM FUNCTIONS >RESPIRATION RATE    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS >ECOSYSTEM FUNCTIONS >OXYGEN DEMAND    [Definition]


ISO Topic Category
BIOTA


Platform
GROUND-BASED OBSERVATIONS    [Information]


Project
LGP >Latitudinal Gradient Project    [Information]
EBA >Evolution and Biodiversity in the Antarctic    [Information]


Data Set Progress
COMPLETE


Data Center
Antarctica New Zealand, New Zealand Antarctic Institute, New Zealand    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://www.antarcticanz.govt.nz/

Data Center Personnel
Name: SHULAMIT GORDON
Phone: +64 3 358 0200
Fax: +64 3 358 0211
Email: s.gordon at antarcticanz.govt.nz
Contact Address:
Antarctica New Zealand
Private Bag 4745
City: Christchurch
Country: New Zealand


Personnel
ANGELA MCGAUGHRAN
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: +64 6 350 5515 Ext 7626
Fax: +64 6 350 5626
Email: A.McGaughran at massey.ac.nz
Contact Address:
Massey University
City: Palmerston North
Country: New Zealand


CEISHA POIROT
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Phone: +64 3 358 0200
Fax: +64 3 358 0211
Email: c.poirot at antarcticanz.govt.nz
Contact Address:
Antarctica New Zealand
Private Bag 4745
City: Christchurch
Country: New Zealand


Publications/References
McGaughran, A., Torricelli, G., Carapelli, A., Frati, F., Stevens, M.I., Convey, P., Hogg, I.D. 2009. Contrasting phylogeographical patterns for springtails reflect different evolutionary histories between the Antarctic Peninsula and continental Antarctica. Journal of biogeography. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2009.02178.x

McGaughran, A., Redding, G.P., Stevens, M.I. and Convey, P. 2009. Temporal metabolic rate variation in a continental Antarctic springtail. Journal of Insect Physiology 55: 130-135.

McGaughran, A. Polar evolution: molecular genetic and physiological parameters of Antarctic arthropod populations. 2009. PhD Thesis Massey University. pp 264

McGaughran, M., Redding, G.P.P., Stevens, M.I. And Convey, P. 2007. Temporal variation in activity of Gomphiocephalus hodgsoni (Hexapoda: Collembola) at Cape Bird (Ross Island), Antarctica. Second International Symposium on the Environmental Physiology of Ectotherms and Plants; University of Otago, New Zealand, July 2007. (ABSTRACT)

Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2005-10-11
Last DIF Revision Date: 2010-09-20


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