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Transport of Sediment-borne Carbon with Different Tillage Practices, USDA-ARS-NAEW
Entry ID: USDA.ARS.NAEWRU.SedimentC



Summary
Abstract: (adapted from project decription)


Problems: Tillage practices impact the movement of sediment within
and from watersheds. How do conservation tillage practices influence
the movement of carbon attached to the sediments -- both loss and
deposition within a watershed as well as the amount moved from a small
watershed?

Approach: In small watersheds instrumented with H-flumes and Coshocton
wheels, flume floor sediments and sediment in runoff have been
collected from several conservation tillage practices (no-till,
chisel-plow, paraplow, disk) for 11 years. Samples of sediment
deposited within watersheds following a runoff event have also been
collected.

Findings: Our work with carbon storage research is recent, and the
results are still only preliminary. Although the weighted averages of
total soil carbon may not be significantly different for the sediment
from the different tillage treatments, carbon content of no-till
sediments was greatest (2.8%) and chisel-plow was lowest
(1.9%). Annual total carbon transport (the product of total sediment
transport times the carbon content) was similar for these two
practices; 11.9 and 12.1 kg/ha, respectively. Annual average carbon
transport from the disk treatment was 17.1 kg/ha. Although tillage
treatments may reduce carbon transport in sediment by lower content, a
greater factor for reducing carbon movement is by reducing sediment
transport.

With soil samples from two conservation tillage watersheds (no-till
and chisel-plow) following summer thunderstorms, characterization of
soil deposited in rills and inter-rill areas and the sediment carried
in runoff waters was contrasted with the near-surface topsoil. The two
watersheds showed similar trends. Suspended sediments from large
events had higher C and slightly lower C/N ratio than flume floor
samples. The C/N ratios of soil samples (0-1 and 0-5 cm depth) and
landscape deposits (averaging between 14 and 22) were higher than the
C/N ratios of fiume deposits and runoff sediments (averaging 8 to 11
).

Future Plans: We have stored soil and sediment samples for nearly 12
years from conservation tillage watersheds. These will be analyzed for
total C (some C fractionation will be done, if adequate resources are
available). Carbon content changes overtime will be studied and
contrasts with C content of sediments will be made to validate
preliminary findings. The study of carbon content and transport on
sediments within a watershed will be expanded to other watersheds and
conservation tillage practices. Understanding transport mechanisms may
lead to development of conceptional models for predicting C dynamics
in agriculture.

Geographic Coverage
 N: 41.0 S: 39.0  E: -80.0  W: -82.0

Data Set Citation
Dataset Originator/Creator: L.B. Owens, R.W. Malone, G.C. Starr and R. Lal
Dataset Title: Transport of sediment-borne carbon with different tillage practices
Dataset Release Place: Coshocton, Ohio
Dataset Publisher: North Appalachian Experimental Watershed Research Unit, USDA-ARS


Location Keywords
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > OHIO


Data Resolution
Temporal Resolution: collected on a storm event basis


Science Keywords
AGRICULTURE >AGRICULTURAL PLANT SCIENCE >CROPPING SYSTEMS    [Definition]
AGRICULTURE >SOILS >ORGANIC MATTER    [Definition]
AGRICULTURE >SOILS >SOIL CHEMISTRY    [Definition]
AGRICULTURE >SOILS >SOIL STRUCTURE    [Definition]
>
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE >SURFACE WATER >SURFACE WATER PROCESSES/MEASUREMENTS >RUNOFF    [Definition]
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE >WATER QUALITY/WATER CHEMISTRY >ORGANIC MATTER    [Definition]
LAND SURFACE >EROSION/SEDIMENTATION >EROSION    [Definition]
LAND SURFACE >EROSION/SEDIMENTATION >SEDIMENT CHEMISTRY    [Definition]
LAND SURFACE >EROSION/SEDIMENTATION >SEDIMENT COMPOSITION    [Definition]
LAND SURFACE >EROSION/SEDIMENTATION >SEDIMENT TRANSPORT    [Definition]
LAND SURFACE >EROSION/SEDIMENTATION >SEDIMENTS    [Definition]
LAND SURFACE >SOILS >ORGANIC MATTER    [Definition]
LAND SURFACE >SOILS >SOIL CHEMISTRY    [Definition]
LAND SURFACE >SOILS >SOIL STRUCTURE    [Definition]


ISO Topic Category
FARMING
ENVIRONMENT
GEOSCIENTIFIC INFORMATION
INLAND WATERS


Platform
GROUND-BASED OBSERVATIONS    [Information]


Quality
have not been peer reviewed/completed yet


Access Constraints
not available yet / not completed yet


Use Constraints
none


Keywords
CARBON LOSS IN EROSION
CARBON POOLS
CARBON SEQUESTRATION
CARBON SINK
CARBON STORAGE
CARBON TRANSPORT
CHISEL-PLOW
CONSERVATION TILLAGE
DISK
H-FLUMES
NO-TILL
PARAPLOW
RUNOFF
SEDIMENT CARBON
WATERSHED SEDIMENT
CONSERVATION


Data Set Progress
IN WORK


Originating Center
USDA/ARS


Data Center
North Appalachian Experimental Watershed Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://www.ars-grin.gov/ars/MidWest/Coshocton/

Data Center Personnel
Name: LLOYD B. OWENS
Phone: 740-545-6349
Fax: 740-545-5125
Email: naew at coshocton.com
Contact Address:
North Appalachian Experimental Watershed Research Unit, USDA-ARS
P.O. Box 488
City: Coshocton
Province or State: OH
Postal Code: 43812
Country: USA


Personnel
RATTAN LAL
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 614-292-9069
Email: lal1 at osu.edu
Contact Address:
School Of Natural Resourc (Food, Agric & Environ Sci)
Ohio State University
422B Kottman Hall
2021 Coffey Rd
City: Columbus
Province or State: OH
Postal Code: 43210
Country: USA


ROBERT W. MALONE
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 740-545-6349
Fax: 740-545-5125
Email: malone at coshocton.com
Contact Address:
North Appalachian Experimental Watershed Research Unit, USDA-ARS
P.O. Box 488
City: Coshocton
Province or State: OH
Postal Code: 43812
Country: USA


LLOYD B. OWENS
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Phone: 740-545-6349
Fax: 740-545-5125
Email: naew at coshocton.com
Contact Address:
North Appalachian Experimental Watershed Research Unit, USDA-ARS
P.O. Box 488
City: Coshocton
Province or State: OH
Postal Code: 43812
Country: USA


GORDON C. STARR
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 614-267-4913
Contact Address:
Ohio State University
422B Kottman Hall
2021 Coffey Rd
City: Columbus
Province or State: OH
Postal Code: 43210
Country: USA


TYLER B. STEVENS
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Phone: (301) 614-6898
Fax: 301-614-5268
Email: Tyler.B.Stevens at nasa.gov
Contact Address:
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Global Change Master Directory
City: Greenbelt
Province or State: MD
Postal Code: 20771
Country: USA


Publications/References
Owens, L.B., R.W. Malone, G.C. Starr, and R. Lal. 1999. Carbon
concentrations and transport in sediment leaving small tilled watersheds. Abstracts of the 1Oth International Soil Conservation
Organization Conference.

Starr, G.C., R. Lal, L. Owens, R. Malone, and J. Kimble. 1999. Conservation tillage effects on preferential transport of sediment-borne C and N from watersheds in Ohio. Abstracts of the 1Oth International Soil Conservation Organization Conference.

Starr, G.C., R. Lal, L. Owens, R. Malone, and J. Kimble. 1998. Assessing carbon losses by erosion from soil and nutrient loss on a watershed scale. An International Workshop on Assessment Methods for Soil C Pools -- Abstract Volume. p. 34.

Starr, G.C., R. Lal, R. Malone, L. Owens, and J. Kimble. 1998. Modeling soil carbon losses in erosion. An International Workshop on Assessment Methods for Soil C Pools - Abstract Volume. p. 35.

Creation and Review Dates
Last DIF Revision Date: 2016-01-27


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