Estimating genetic variation is important in understanding a populations potential to track changing environmental conditions and for conservation management. Two molecular techniques, DNA sequencing and microsatellite markers, were used to determine the genetic structure of and relationships amoung moss populations. A phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequence variation was conducted, focusing on the ... genuses Bryum and Hennediella and moss specific microsatellite markers were used to address questions of population variability as well as taxonomic delimitations and phylogenetic relationships. Samples of mosses were obtained from Cape Bird (25-29 January 2000), Beaufort Island (28 January, 2000), Miers Valley (30 January - 3 February, 2000), Cape Crozier (11-12 January, 2001), Marble Point (12-16 January, 2001) and Granite Harbour (16-19 January, 2001). Additional samples for comparison were obtained from Australia, Sub-Antarctic Islands and other Southern Hemisphere localities.