Abstract: The Russian Empire climate data resides in 4 books, 'Memoire Sur La Temperature Moyenne De Plusieurs Points De L'Empire De Russie' (C/db K96); 'Observations Meteorologiques et Magnetiques Faites Dans L'Empire De Russie' (C/db K96m); 'Memoires De L'Academie Imperiale Des Sciences De Saint-Petersbourg' (C/db K96o); and 'Resumes Des Observations Meteorologiques Faites Dans L'Etendue De L'Empire ... De Russie' (C/db K96r), all written in French. The data contained in these books are hourly surface observations, daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual surface climatic data, and some geomagnetic data for selected cities in the Russian Empire from 1813 to 1836.
Parameters included in the hourly observations are pressure, air temperature, cloudiness, precipitation, winds, vapor pressure, and the geomagnetic variables of inclination, azimuth, absolute declination, and magnetic declination. The only daily variable is mean temperature. It is calculated for each month and averaged over the period.
Monthly parameters for each month are the following: mean pressure, temperature, humidity, and winds; mean maximum and minimum pressure and temperature; absolute maximum and minimum pressure and temperature; number of days of fog, rain, snow, frost, thunderstorms, hail, clear skies, partly cloudy skies, and cloudy skies; precipitation totals; and wind frequency. Monthly parameters averaged over the period are mean temperature, mean maximum and minimum temperature, and wind frequency. Wind frequency and mean temperature are averaged seasonally and annually.
Additional variables that can be found in these data are hottest and coldest days of each year, number of days that a river or lake is ice-covered, earliest and latest frost, first snowfall, and duration of the winter.
The Transcaucasia rainfall data resides in 1 book, 'Precipitation in Transcaucasia' (C/db K76) written in Russian, English notes. The data contained in this book are monthly, seasonal, and annual precipitation data for Transcaucasia in Russia from 1848 to 1918. Precipitation parameters averaged over the period and for each individual month included in these data are the following: absolute maximum in 24 hours for a month; monthly totals; and monthly number of days with hail, snow and precipitation of a certain intensity. Precipitation variables averaged only for the period 1848 to 1918 are mean monthly and seasonal precipitation, monthly probability of precipitation, and mean monthly number of showers.
These books are part of the foreign meteorological data collection held by the NOAA Central Library in Washington, DC. Information in this collection dates back to the 18th century for daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual tabular summaries, and the 19th century for weather maps. These data are the result of foreign exchange agreements, but the collection has not been updated since 1983.