These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c (GSSTF2c) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie (UMBC/GEST, NASA/GSFC), converted to HDF-EOS5 format. The stewardship of this HDF-EOS5 dataset is part of the MEaSUREs project,
GSSTF version 2b (Shie et al. 2010, Shie et al. 2009) generally agreed better with available ship measurements obtained from several field experiments in 1999 than GSSTF2 (Chou et al. 2003) did in all three flux components, i.e., latent heat flux [LHF], sensible heat flux [SHF], and wind stress [WST] (Shie 2010a,b). GSSTF2b was also found favorable, particularly for LHF and SHF, in an intercomparison study that accessed eleven products of ocean surface turbulent fluxes, in which GSSTF2 and GSSTF2b were also included (Brunke et al. 2011). However, a temporal trend appeared in the globally averaged LHF of GSSTF2b, particularly post year 2000. Shie (2010a,b) attributed the LHF trend to the trends originally found in the globally averaged SSM/I Tb's, i.e., Tb(19v), Tb(19h), Tb(22v) and Tb(37v), which were used to retrieve the GSSTF2b bottom-layer (the lowest atmospheric 500 meter layer) precipitable water [WB], then the surface specific humidity [Qa], and subsequently LHF. The SSM/I Tb's trends were recently found mainly due to the variations/trends of Earth incidence angle (EIA) in the SSM/I satellites (Hilburn and Shie 2011a,b). They have further developed an algorithm properly resolving the EIA problem and successfully reproducing the corrected Tb's by genuinely removing the "artifactitious" trends. An upgraded production of GSSTF2c (Shie et al. 2011) using the corrected Tb's has been completed very recently.
GSSTF2c shows a significant improvement in the resultant WB, and subsequently the retrieved LHF - the temporal trends of WB and LHF are greatly reduced after the proper adjustments/treatments in the SSM/I Tb's (Shie and Hilburn 2011). In closing, we believe that the insightful "Rice Cooker Theory" by Shie (2010a,b), i.e., "To produce a good and trustworthy 'output product' (delicious 'cooked rice') depends not only on a well-functioned 'model/algorithm' ('rice cooker'), but also on a genuine and reliable 'input data' ('raw rice') with good quality" should help us better comprehend the impact of the improved Tb on the subsequently retrieved LHF of GSSTF2c.
This is the Daily (24-hour) product; data are projected to equidistant Grid that covers the globe at 1x1 degree cell size, resulting in data arrays of 360x180 size.
The GSSTF, Version 2c, daily fluxes have first been produced for each individual available SSM/I satellite tapes (e.g., F08, F10, F11, F13, F14 and F15). Then, the Combined daily fluxes are produced by averaging (equally weighted) over available flux data/files from various satellites. These Combined daily flux data are considered as the "final" GSSTF, Version 2c, and are stored in this HDF-EOS5 collection.
There are only one set of GSSTF, Version 2c, Combined data, "Set1"
The double-quoted labels are the short names of the data fields in the HDF-EOS5 files.
The "individual" daily flux data files, produced for each individual satellite, are also available in HDF-EOS5, although from different collections: GES_DISC_GSSTF_xxx_2c, where xxx are the individual satellites (F08, F10, etc..)
The input data sets used for this recent GSSTF production include the upgraded and improved datasets such as the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) Version-6 (V6) product of brightness temperature [Tb], total precipitable water [W], and wind speed [U] produced by the Wentz of Remote Sensing Systems (RSS), as well as the NCEP/DOE Reanalysis-2 (R2) product of sea skin temperature [SKT], 2-meter air temperature [Tair], and sea level pressure [SLP]. Relevant to this MEaSUREs project, these are converted to HDF-EOS5, and are stored in the GES_DISC_GSSTF_NCEP_2c collection.
Please use these products with care and proper citations, i.e., properly indicating your applications with, e.g., "using the combined 2001 data file of Set1" or "using the 2001 F13 data file".
APPENDIX SET1 --------------- The following list summarizes individual satellites used to produce the Combined SET1.
(1) Y1987/: F08/ 1987/07-12: F08 (Note: 1987/12 is filled with missing value due to data scarcity)
(2) Y1988/: F08/ 1988/01-12: F08
(3) Y1989/: F08/ 1989/01-12: F08
(4) Y1990: F08/ F10/ 1990/01-12: F08 (Note: F10 started in 1990/12, but N/A due to data scarcity)
(a) For Y2006, Y2007 and Y2008, the current Combined daily data files do not include the F15 Individual daily data files due to problematic calibration in F15. The Combined daily files will be updated for those three years once an improved set of Individual daily data files are produced using corrected and updated SSM/I F15 input files.
(b) The current Combined daily data files are produced with at most 4 combined satellites, i.e., F10, F11, F13 and F14 for May-Nov 1997, and F11, F13, F14 and F15 for Jan-May 2000.
Parameters contained in the data files include the following: Variable Name|Description|Units DQ|sea-air humidity difference|(g/kg) E|latent heat flux|(W/m^^2) H|sensible heat flux|(W/m^^2) Qair|surface air (~10-m) specific humidity|(g/kg) STu|zonal wind stress|(N/m^^2) STv|meridional wind stress|(N/m^^2) Tot_Precip_Water|total precipitable water|(g/cm^^2) U|10-m wind speed|(m/s) WB|lowest 500-m precipitable water|(g/cm^^2) End of parameter information
The daily temporal and one-degree spatial resolution of the product can be used to examining climate variability at these scales. The global water cycle's provision of water to terrestrial storage, reservoirs, and rivers rests upon the global excess of evaporation to precipitation over the oceans. Variations in the magnitude of this ocean evaporation excess will ultimately lead to variations in ... the amount of freshwater that is transported (by the atmosphere) and precipitated over continental regions. The air-sea fluxes of momentum, radiation, and freshwater (precipitation-evaporation) play a very essential role in a wide variety of atmospheric and oceanic problems (e.g., oceanic evaporation contributes to the net fresh water input to the oceans and drives the upper ocean density structure and consequently the circulation of the oceans). Information on these fluxes is crucial in understanding the interactions between the atmosphere and oceans, global energy, and water cycle variability, and in improving model simulations of climate variations.
The GSSTF dataset has been widely used by scientific communities for global energy and water cycle research and regional and short period data analysis since its official release in 2000/2001. Accurate sea surface fluxes measurements are crucial to understanding the global water and energy cycles. The oceanic evaporation that is a major component of the global oceanic fresh water flux is particularly useful to predicting oceanic circulation and transport. Remote sensing is a valuable tool for global monitoring of these flux measurements. The GSSTF algorithm has been developed and applied to remote sensing research and applications. We are looking forward to serving the scientific communities with another useful dataset in GSSTF2c.
The values provided in temporal and spatial coverage are approximate only.
Taken from the 2008-2009 Progress Report:
Variations to work plan or objectives: We started conducting experiments to evaluate effects of rising CO2 concentration to krill larval development. This year we also conducted long-term CO2 exposure experiments using post larval krill. This was ... pursued in collaboration with our Japanese counterparts (Prof. Ishimatsu and Dr Kurihara).
Field work: No field work was undertaken this year but a population of live krill (~25,000 individuals) were captured on return from V3 and the aquarium is currently full at the time of writing.
Laboratory activity/analysis: Study on effect of CO2 on larval and post larval Krill.
Evaluation of effect of persistent organic pollutant on krill biology. Analysis of krill fishery behaviour. Analysis of flow fields using schooling krill (Contribution to analysis and writeup of experiments conducted in previous years). Our project is a continuous multi-disciplinary study focussing on various aspects of krill. Our results are continuously being published in peer-reviewed scientific journals every year as new results are obtained.
Taken from the 2009-2010 Progress Report: Field work: No field work was undertaken this year but populations of live krill (~5,000 individuals in total) were captured on return from V2 and V4 and transferred to the aquarium. Many of these females were gravid and spawned once back in the aquarium, resulting with many larvae, which are currently used for ocean acidification studies on larval krill.
Laboratory activity/analysis: Study on effect of CO2 on larval and post larval Krill. Analysis of krill fishery behaviour. Experimental study on over-wintering strategy of krill. Analysis of underwater footage of krill aggregations. Krill fishery data analysis. Experiments on the effects of environmental condition in seasonal maturity cycle of krill.
Our project is a continuous multi-disciplinary study focussing on various aspects of krill. Our results are continuously being published in peer-reviewed scientific journals every year as new results are obtained.
These data are available for download from the URL given below.
Tanimura, A., Oka, N., Kawaguchi, S., Nishikawa, J., Takahashi, K.T., Makabe, R., Hosie, G., Odate, T. (2008), Distribution pattern of macrozooplankton along the 140oE meridian in the Southern Ocean during austral summer 2002 and 2003, Nankyoku Shiryo (Antarctic Record), 1, 52, 13555, 1-8, AAS Project 2337
Bengston Nash, S.M., Poulsen, A.H., Kawaguchi, S., Vetter, W., Schlabach, M. (2008), Persistent organohalogen contaminant burdens in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) from the eastern Antarctic sector, A baseline study Science of the Total Environment, 407, 13556, 304-314, AAS Project 2337
Takahashi, K.T., Kawaguchi, S., Toda, T. (2008), Observation by electron microscopy of a gregarine parasite of Antarctic krill: its histological aspects and ecological explanations., Polar Biology, doi:10.1007/s00300-008-0563-4
Yoshida, T., Kawaguchi, S., Meyer, B., Virtue, P., Penschow, J, Nash, J. (2009), Structural changes in the digestive glands of larval Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) during starvation., Polar Biology, doi:10.1007/s00300-008-0569-y
Nicol, S., Worby, T. and Leaper, R. (2008), Changes in the Antarctic sea ice ecosystem and its potential effect on krill and baleen whales, Marine and Freshwater Research, 59, 361-382
Nicol, S. (2008), Harvesting the Polar regions, Antarctica, Secrets of the Southern Continent, 366-367, 400, Global Book publishing, NSW, Australia
Kawaguchi, S., Peterson, W. (eds) (2010), Krill Biology and Ecology: Dedicated to Edward Brinton ., Deep-Sea Research II, 57, 493-692
Kawaguchi, S., King, R., Meijers, R., Osborn, J.E., Swadling, K. M., Ritz, D. A., Nicol., S. (2010), An experimental aquarium for observing the schooling behaviour of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba)., Deep-Sea Research II, 57, 683-692, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2009.10.017.
Brown, M., Kawaguchi, S., Candy, S.G., Virtue, P. (2010), Temperature effects on the growth and maturation of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba)., Deep-Sea Research II Krill biology and ecology. Deep-Sea Research II., 57, 672-682, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2009.10.016
Nicol, S. and Brierley, A. S. (2010), Through a glass less darkly - New approaches for studying the distribution, abundance and biology of Euphausiids., Deep-Sea Research II, 57, 496-507, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2009.10.002
Virtue, P., S Kawaguchi, McIvor, J., Nicol, S., Wotherspoon, S., Brown, M., Casper, R., Davenport, S., Finley, L., Foster, J., Yoshida, T., Yoshiki, T. (2010), Krill growth and condition in Western Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean 30-80 oE in austral summer 2006., Deep-Sea Research II, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.11.035
Jarvis, T., Kelly, N., Kawaguchi, S., van Wijk, E., Nicol, S. (2010), Acoustic characterisation of the broad-scale distribution and abundance of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) off East Antarctica (30-80oE) in January-March 2006., Deep-Sea Research II, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.06.013
Kawaguchi, S., Nicol, S., Virtue, P., Davenport, S. R., Casper, R., Swadling, K. M., Hosie, G. W. (2010), Krill demography and large scale distribution in the Western Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean (CCAMLR Division 58.4.2) in Austral summer of 2006., Deep-Sea Research II, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.06.014
Nicol, S. Bowie, A., Jarman, S. Lannuzel, D., Meiners, K. and Van de Merwe, P. (2010), Fish and Fisheries, doi:10.1111/j.1467-2979.2010.00356.x., 2010 Southern Ocean iron fertilization by baleen whales and Antarctic krill.
Kawaguchi, S., Nicol, S, Press, P. (2009), Direct effects of climate change on the Antarctic krill fishery., Fisheries Management and Ecology, 16, 424-427
Kawaguchi, S., Candy, S. (2009), Quantifying movement behaviour of vessels in the Antarctic krill fishery., CCAMLR Science, 16, 131-148
Gomez-Gutierrez, J., Kawaguchi, S., Nicol, S. (2009), Epibiotic suctorians and enigmatic ectoand endoparasitoid dinoflagellates of euphausiid eggs (Euphausiacea) off Oregon, USA., Journal of Plankton Research., doi:10.1093/plankt/fbp026
omez-Gutierrez J, Robinson CJ, Kawaguchi S, Nicol S. (2010), Parasite diversity of Nyctiphanes simplex and Nematoscelis difficilis (Crustacea:Euphausiacea) along the Northwestern coast of Mexico, Dis Aquat Org., 3, 88, 249-266