Baringo (Kenya) Pilot Study for Desertification Assessment and Mapping

Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Unknown
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title: Baringo (Kenya) Pilot Study for Desertification Assessment and Mapping
Description:
Abstract:
The purpose of the Kenya Pilot Study was to evaluate the FAO/UNEP Provisional Methodology for Assessment and Mapping of Desertification, and to recommend an effective, simple methodology for desertification assessment within Kenya. The FAO/UNEP Provisional Methodology (1984) proposes seven processes for consideration in desertification assessment: degradation of vegetation, water erosion, wind erosion, salinization, reduction of organic content, soil crusting and compaction. In late 1985, a pilot project for the assessment of the FAO/UNEP Methodology within Kenya was proposed, and in 1987 a memorandum of understanding between the Government of Kenya and UNEP for the implementation of that study was signed. The study areas were: 1) Models can be useful to assist in desertification assessment. Models can be developed from FAO/UNEP Methodology. 2) Any modeling output requires verification. 3) Ground survey and remote sensing can be important sources of data. 4) An evaluation of data and methodologies necessary to allow verification of desertification assessment modeling is required. 5) A human use component should be incorporated into desertification assessment that considers management implications and social, as well as, economic context. 6) Computer implementation of desertificaiton assessment can be effective, however, procedures should be well defined. This study within the Baringo Study Area was designed to address these concerns. The Baringo Study Area identified in this study would be typical of such a training area. The models developed during this study could be applied to the general region. The study area lies between 0 15'-1 N and 35 30' -36 30' E. It is located between the Laikipia escarpment to the East and the Tugen Hills to the West. Topographic elevations vary from 900m on the Njemps flats to 2000m in the Puka, Tangulbei and Pokot highlands. The size of the study area is approximately 15ookm2. 4.0 DATA COLLECTION A wide variety of data was collected. Detailed data was required to provide a basis for evaluating more general cost effective data gathering techniques and to provide a basis for model verification, particularly the socio/economic data. Physical Environment Topographic Data Topographic contours were digitized directly from 1:250,000 Survey of Kenya topographic maps. The contour interval was 200 feet. A digital elevation model was constructed using triangular irregular networks (TIN). Soil Data Soil types were mapped at 1:100,000 scale using existing soil maps, manual interpretation of SPOT imagery, and field investigations (Figure 3). During field trips, soil samples were taken from each soil unit and analyzed by the Kenya National Agricultural Center. 4.2 Climate Data 4.2.1 Rainfall Data Rainfall data from the Kenya Meteorological Department was analyzed for 33 stations within and surrounding the study area. A rainfall erosivity index was calculated based on the Fourier Index (R). 12 RE (p /P) 12 where P = annual rainfall p = monthly rainfall A relationship between this erosivity index and the annual rainfall for each station was calculated using linear regression (Bake, 1988). A map of rainfall erosivity was generated for the study area by relating annual rainfall isoheyts to the following: y = 0.108x - 0.68 This data was coded and digitized. Wind Erosion Potential The following required conditions were determined to create high wind erosion potential (Kinuthia, 1989): 1) Annual rainfall less than 300mm. 2) P/E greater than zero and less than 1, where: P=mean monthly rainfall (cm). E=mean monthly PET (cm). 3) Wind velocity greater than 4 m/s at 10m height. Vegetation Data A vegetation map for the study area was produced at a scale of 1:100,000 through manual interpretation of a SPOT image and field investigations (Figure 6). A structural classification system as adopted by DRSRS was used for naming vegetation types (Grunb). Systematic Reconnaissance Flight Data Since 1977, DRSRS has been conducting aerial surveys of Kenyan rangelands. In addition to data on the number of wildlife and livestock, observations of land use and environmental condition are also made. Socio/economic Data Social Factors A wide variety of data was collected through literature review and a field administered questionnaire. Nutritional status was estimated by measurement of childrens' mid upper arm. Such data is useful for a Level 1 type assessment. Permanent Structures Data For the Level 2 assessment, data on permanent structures was extracted from DRSRS SRF data. This data was used to indicate presence and concentration of sedentary populations. Example Files: VDS.E00 (Vegetation degradation) DES.E00 (Plant Species) Others available on request.
Purpose:
Not Available
Supplemental_Information:
Not Available
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19840101
Ending_Date: 19921230
Currentness_Reference:Unknown
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: 35.0
East_Bounding_Coordinate: 36.0
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 0.0
South_Bounding_Coordinate: -1.0
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD SCIENCE PARAMETERS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ANCILLARY KEYWORDS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO TOPIC CATEGORY
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > AGRICULTURAL PLANT SCIENCE > PLANT BREEDING AND GENETICS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS > DESERTS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > VEGETATION > VEGETATION SPECIES
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > HUMAN DIMENSIONS > SOCIAL BEHAVIOR
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > HUMAN DIMENSIONS > HABITAT CONVERSION/FRAGMENTATION > DESERTIFICATION
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > HUMAN DIMENSIONS > INFRASTRUCTURE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > HUMAN DIMENSIONS > POPULATION
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > SURFACE WATER > RIVERS/STREAMS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > WATER QUALITY/WATER CHEMISTRY
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > EROSION/SEDIMENTATION > EROSION
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > EROSION/SEDIMENTATION > WEATHERING
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > LAND USE/LAND COVER
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > TOPOGRAPHY
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS > MARINE HABITAT
Theme_Keyword: Agriculture
Theme_Keyword: Agriculture > Agricultural Practices
Theme_Keyword: Desertification
Theme_Keyword: Drainage
Theme_Keyword: Environmental Chemistry > Organic Substances
Theme_Keyword: Environmental Management > Environmental Planning > Environmental Risk Assessment
Theme_Keyword: Freshwater > Freshwater Degradation > Water Salination
Theme_Keyword: Freshwater > Freshwater Resources > Rivers
Theme_Keyword: Hazards
Theme_Keyword: Human Health > Nutrition And Health Care > Nutrition
Theme_Keyword: Human Settlements > Infrastructure
Theme_Keyword: Human Settlements > Socio-economic Aspects > Demography
Theme_Keyword: Human Settlements > Socio-economic Aspects > Population Movement
Theme_Keyword: Infrastructure
Theme_Keyword: Lithosphere > Wind Erosion
Theme_Keyword: Plants
Theme_Keyword: Range Utilization
Theme_Keyword: Subject Disciplines > Mapping
Theme_Keyword: Subject Disciplines > Plant Genetics
Theme_Keyword: Terrestrial Ecosystems > Arid Land Ecosystem > Desertification
Theme_Keyword: Terrestrial Ecosystems > Biodiversity, Protected Areas > Vegetation
Theme_Keyword: Terrestrial Ecosystems > Biodiversity, Protected Areas > Vegetation Types
Theme_Keyword: Terrestrial Ecosystems > Soils > Water Erosion
Theme_Keyword: FARMING
Theme_Keyword: BIOTA
Theme_Keyword: ELEVATION
Theme_Keyword: ENVIRONMENT
Theme_Keyword: GEOSCIENTIFIC INFORMATION
Theme_Keyword: HEALTH
Theme_Keyword: IMAGERY/BASE MAPS/EARTH COVER
Theme_Keyword: INLAND WATERS
Theme_Keyword: OCEANS
Theme_Keyword: PLANNING CADASTRE
Theme_Keyword: SOCIETY
Theme_Keyword: TRANSPORTATION
Theme_Keyword: UTILITIES/COMMUNICATIONS
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > AFRICA > EASTERN AFRICA > KENYA
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > AFRICA
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > AFRICA > EASTERN AFRICA
Access_Constraints: Public
Use_Constraints:
Not Available
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: JOHANNES AKIWUMI
Contact_Position: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Head, Data and Information Management Section
Address: Division of Early Warning and Assessment (DEWA)
Address: United Nations Environment Programme
Address: P. O. Box 30552
City: Nairobi
Postal_Code: 00100
Country: Kenya
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (+254-20) 7624214
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (+254-20) 7624315
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: Johannes.Akiwumi@unep.org
Back to Top
Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
Not Available
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Not Available
Completeness_Report:
Not Available
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Not Available
Process_Date: Unknown
Back to Top
Spatial_Reference_Information:
Back to Top
Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: UNEP/GRID-NAIROBI > Global Resource Information Database - Nairobi, Division of Early Warning and Assessment, United Nations Environment Programme
Contact_Person: JOHANNES AKIWUMI
Contact_Position: DATA CENTER CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Head, Data and Information Management Section
Address: Division of Early Warning and Assessment (DEWA)
Address: United Nations Environment Programme
Address: P. O. Box 30552
City: Nairobi
Postal_Code: 00100
Country: Kenya
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (+254-20) 7624214
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (+254-20) 7624315
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: Johannes.Akiwumi@unep.org
Resource_Description: NBId0169_101
Distribution_Liability:
Not Available
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: Not Available
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://gridnairobi.unep.org/
Access_Instructions:
DATA CENTER URL
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Fees: Not Available
Back to Top
Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date:
Metadata_Review_Date: 20120607
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: GCMD User Support Office
Contact_Organization: NASA Global Change Master Directory
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Not Available
City: Lanham
State_or_Province: MD
Postal_Code: 20706
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: Not Available
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gcmduso@gcmd.gsfc.nasa.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: local time
Back to Top
[ Update this Record ]


Link to Web Site