Morrow Plots, Long Term Agriculutral Experiment, Illinois

Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Unknown
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title: Morrow Plots, Long Term Agriculutral Experiment, Illinois
Description:
Abstract:
The exact origin of the Morrow plots on the campus of the University of Illinois is obscure, but they are reputed to be the oldest continuous agronomic research study in the USA. Some evidence indicates that the plots were established in 1876, however the first yield records begin in 1888 when the Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station began. Included with the records are notes stating that the plots were cropped during the previous 14 years in continuous corn, in a corn-oats rotation and a corn-oats-clover hay rotation. Not too long before 1876 the site would have been in native tall grass (big bluestem, Andropogon gerardi) prairie. In early field research studies it was common to not record yields until the studt reached equilibrium with the treatments. The plots are located in Champaign County, Illinois on the Bloomington ridged plain. This is a Wisonsinan-aged till plain that is covered with about one meter of Peoria loess. For sometime during and after the retreat of the last Wisconsinan glacial ice from Illinois some 12,000 years ago, the climate was cooler and wetter than at present. A rather warm, dry period 4,000-6,000 years ago led to an expension of grassland in the area. Since that time, the climate seems to have remained similar to that today. The elevation of the plots is about 225 m above sea level. The soil of the Morrow plots is Flanagan silt loam, a fine, montmorillonitic, mesic Aquic Arguidoll (USDA). Flanagan silt loam is a nearly level, dark coloured, somewhat poorly drained soil. Developed in 100-150cm of loess over loamy, firm Wisconsinan-age calcareous till. The A horizon is about 46 cm thick. Before the 1904 season, underground tile lines were installed in the plots to provide supplemental drainage. the experiment consists of three rotations: continuous corn, corn-soybean, and corn-oat-clover hay. All rotations have the following general treatments: 1) no amendments, 2) lime, lime-nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (LNPK), 3) Manure-lime-phosphorus (MLP). Rates have varied over the years. The measurements made, methodology, and frequency are listed below: a) Vegetation measurements made and frequency Yield: Yearly b) Soil sampling Details of soil sampling method: There has not been a systematic soil sampling scheme. Samples are taken by a variety of methods as appropriate and when necessary. Soil fertility samples are usually taken with a 3 cm tube from near the plot centre. Soil is separated into layers. Details of measuring depths and soil layers: No set methods. Samples have been taken over the years in a variety of ways. The deepest sampling exceeds 1 metre. Most samples are for the upper 25cm. c) Soil measurements made and frequency Total carbon: About every 5 years since 1904 Method of measuring total carbon: The analytical method is a modification of the method of Schollenberger which involves an oxidising solution of concentrated sulphuric acid/potassium dichromate at 175 deg. C for 90 seconds (see Schollenberger, C.J. Determination of soil organic matter. Soil Sci. 59: 53-56). Carbon measurements in other organic matter fractions: Once in 1956 Method of measuring carbon in other organic matter fractions: See Stevenson, F.J. (1956) Effect of some long-time rotations on the amino acid composition of the soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 20: 204-208. Total nitrogen: 10 yearly - sporadic Method of measuring total nitrogen: Kjeldahl method - Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Agicultural Chemists, ed. 5, Washington D.C., 1940. Soil bulk density or weight: Sporadic on a limited number of plots. Method of measuring soil bulk density or weight: Clod method on 2 plots Other nutrients: Ca, Mg, K, Na - Extractable in weak acid Other measurements: Hg has been measured on plots (Jones & Hinesly, 1972 - see reference list). Aggregation measured on selected subplots (Darmody & Norton, 1994; Stauffer et al., 1940 - see reference list). d) Details of the meteorological station Nearest meteorological station to the site: Urbana (#118740) which is 3.2 km from the site at coordinates 88deg.14min.20sec. West, 40deg.05min.14sec. North Meteorological data is available from both a manual and an automatic station. e) Meteorological data available and frequency Rainfall: Daily Air temperature: Daily Soil temperature: Daily at 5 and 15 cm depth Wind speed: Hourly Net Radiation: Daily Sun hours: Daily Relative humidity: Daily Potential evapotranspiration: Daily measured/calculated by open pan f) Isotope measurements available and frequency Total soil carbon 14 measurements: Once to compare 1988 with 1944 Details of isotope measurements: Details in Hsieh, Y.-P. (1992) Pool size and mean age of stable soil organic carbon in cropland. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 56: 460-464. This information was compiled for the GCTE-SOMNET Database, Pete Smith, Pete Falloon, David Powlson, and Jo Smith. Soil Science Department, IACR-Rothamsted, UK.
Purpose:
Not Available
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Boone, L.V. 1968. The Morrow Plots - a national historic landmark, Illinois Research, Vol 10,3-4.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Bryan, A.A. and Wendland, W.M. 1987. Local climatological data summary Champaign-Urbana, Illinois 1888-1986. Illinois Water Survey Miscellaneous Publication 98, Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL., USA.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Cescas, M.P. and Tyner, E.H. 1967. Chemical analysis of soil particles, Illinois Research (9).
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Darmody, R.G. and Norton, L.D. 1994. Structural degradation of a prairie soil from long-term management. Soil Micromorphology: Studies in Management and Genesis. Proc. IX Int. Working Meeting on Soil Micromorphology. Townsville, Australia, July 1992. In: A.J. Ringrose-Voase and G.S. Humphreys (eds.). Developments in Soil Science 22, Elsevier, Amsterdam, p. 641-649.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Darmody, R.G. and Peck, T.R. 1995. Soil organic carbon changes through time at the University of Illinois Morrow Plots. Soil Organic matter in temperate Agro-ecosystems: Long-term experiments in North America. In: E.A. Paul, K. Paustian, E.T. Elliott and C.V Cole (eds.). Lewis Publisher (in press).
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: DeTurk, E.E. 1938. Changes in the soil of the Morrow Plots which have accompanied long-continued cropping. Proc. Soil Science Society of America 3:83-85.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: DeTurk, E.E., Bauer, F.C. and Smith, L.H. 1927. Lessons from the Morrow Plots, Ag. Exp. Sta. Bulletin No. 300, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL., USA.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Department of Agronomy, 1960. The Morrow Plots - University of Illinois, Circular 777.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Guernsey, C.W. 1966. Corn root distribution of the Morrow Plots, M.S. Thesis, University of Illinois, Urbana, USA.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Guernsey, C.W., Fehrenbacher, J.B., Ray, B.W. and Miller, L.B. 1969. Corn Yields, root volumes and soil changes on the Morrow Plots. Vol 24, No.3. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Hopkins, C.G. Soil Fertility and Permanent Agriculture. Ginn and Co., Boston. p. 454-457.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Hsieh, Y-P. 1992. Poor size and mean age of stable soil organic carbon in cropland. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 56:460-464.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Hunt, Thomas F. and Morrow, G.E. 1890. Field Experiments with Corn, 1889, Ag. Exp. Sta. Bulletin No. 8, University of Illinois, Champaign, IL., USA p.266-167.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Jones, R.L. 1992. Uranium and Phosphorus Content in Morrow Plot Soils Over 82 Years. Commun. Soil Science Plant Anal. 23 (1 & 2), 67-73.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Jones, R.L. and Hinesly, T.D. 1972. Total Mercury content in Morrow Plot soils over a period of 63 years. Soil Science Society America. Proc. 36: 921-923.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Miles, M. 1876. Commercial fertilizers and Indian corn, Prairie Farmer, Vol. 47. No. 24.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Mortvedt, J.J. 1986. Cadmium Levels in Soils and Plant Tissues from Long-Term Soil Fertility Experiments in the United States. Paper in Transactions of XIII International Society of Soil Science.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Odell, R.T. 1953. Effect of cropping systems on corn yields and on physical properties of some dark-colored soils. University of Illinois. Agronomy Department AG 1578.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Odell, R.T., Melsted, S.W. and Walker, W.M. 1984. Changes in organic carbon and nitrogen of Morrow Plot soils under different treatments. 1904-1973, Soil Science Vol 137, No. 3.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Odell, R.T., Walker, W.M., Boone, L.V. and Oldham, M.G. 1984. The Morrow Plots - A Century of Learning, Illinois Ag. Exp. Sta. Bulletin No. 775, College of Agriculture, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, USA.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Omueti, J.A.I. and Jones, R.L. 1977. Fluorine Content of Soil from Morrow Plots over a period of 67 years. Soil Science Society America Journal 41: 1023-1024.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Russell, M.B. 1956. All the way back in one year? Plant Food Review. Vol 12: 18.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Stauffer, R.S., Muckerenhirn, R.J. and Odell, R.T. 1940. Organic carbon, pH and aggregation of the soil of the Morrow Plots as affected by type of cropping and manurial addition. Journal of American Society of Agronomy. Vol 32, No. 11:819.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Stevenson, F.J. 1956. Effect of some long-time rotations on the amino acid composition of the soil. Soil Science Society of America Proc. 20:204-208.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Welch, L.F. 1976. the Morrow Plots - Hundred years of research. Ann. Agron., 27:881-890.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Welch, L.F., Melsted, S.W. and Oldham, M.G. 1976. Lessons from the Morrow Plots, Illinois Research, University of Illinois. Agric. Exper. Sta., Vol 18, No. 1.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Whetter, P.A., Ku, P.K., Rossman, E.C. and Peck, T.R. 1988. Effect of Yield, Soil pH and Fertilization Practices on Selenium Concentration in Corn. VDLUFA-Schriftenreihe 28, Kongressband, TEIL II.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 18760101
Ending_Date: Unknown
Currentness_Reference:Unknown
Status:
Progress: In Work
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -88.24
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -88.2
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 40.2
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 40.0
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD SCIENCE PARAMETERS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: PROJECT
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ANCILLARY KEYWORDS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO TOPIC CATEGORY
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS > FERTILIZERS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > AGRICULTURAL PLANT SCIENCE > CROP/PLANT YIELDS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > AGRICULTURAL PLANT SCIENCE > CROPPING SYSTEMS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > AGRICULTURAL PLANT SCIENCE > RECLAMATION/REVEGETATION/RESTORATION
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > CALCIUM
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > CARBON > CARBON 14
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > CARBON > TOTAL CARBON
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > MAGNESIUM
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > NITROGEN
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > ORGANIC MATTER
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > POTASSIUM
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > SOIL SALINITY/SOIL SODICITY
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > SOIL BULK DENSITY
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > SOIL CHEMISTRY > MERCURY
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > SOIL STRUCTURE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > SOIL TEMPERATURE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE > AIR TEMPERATURE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR > EVAPOTRANSPIRATION
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR > HUMIDITY
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR > WATER VAPOR
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC WINDS > SURFACE WINDS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > PRECIPITATION > RAIN
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION > NET RADIATION
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION > SUNSHINE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > VEGETATION > BIOMASS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > CALCIUM
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > CARBON > CARBON 14
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > MAGNESIUM
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > NITROGEN
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > POTASSIUM
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > SOIL SALINITY/SOIL SODICITY
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > SOIL BULK DENSITY
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > SOIL CHEMISTRY > MERCURY
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > SOIL STRUCTURE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > SOIL TEMPERATURE
Theme_Keyword: GCTE > GLOBAL CHANGE AND TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS, IGBP
Theme_Keyword: Avena Fatua L.
Theme_Keyword: Clover
Theme_Keyword: Corn
Theme_Keyword: Gcte
Theme_Keyword: Global Change And Terestrial Ecosystems
Theme_Keyword: Glycine Max L.
Theme_Keyword: Igbp
Theme_Keyword: International Geosphere Biosphere Program
Theme_Keyword: Lime
Theme_Keyword: Manure
Theme_Keyword: Oat
Theme_Keyword: Soil Organic Matter Network
Theme_Keyword: Somnet
Theme_Keyword: Soybean
Theme_Keyword: Trifolium L.
Theme_Keyword: Zea Mays L.
Theme_Keyword: Conservation
Theme_Keyword: FARMING
Theme_Keyword: BIOTA
Theme_Keyword: CLIMATOLOGY/METEOROLOGY/ATMOSPHERE
Theme_Keyword: ECONOMY
Theme_Keyword: ENVIRONMENT
Theme_Keyword: GEOSCIENTIFIC INFORMATION
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > ILLINOIS
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints:
Not Available
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: SUSANNE AREF
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: ROBERT G. DARMODY
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: TED PECK
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: MICHELLE WANDER
Contact_Position: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Contact_Position: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Contact_Position: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Contact_Position: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: University of Illinois
Address: Department of Crop Sciences
Address: 1102 South Goodwin Avenue
Address: W-201 Turner Hall
City: Urbana
State_or_Province: IL
Postal_Code: 61801-4798
Country: USA
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: University of Illinois
Address: Department of Crop Sciences
Address: 1102 South Goodwin Avenue
Address: W-201 Turner Hall
City: Urbana
State_or_Province: IL
Postal_Code: 61801-4798
Country: USA
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: University of Illinois
Address: Department of Crop Sciences
Address: 1102 South Goodwin Avenue
Address: W-201 Turner Hall
City: Urbana
State_or_Province: IL
Postal_Code: 61801-4798
Country: USA
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: University of Illinois
Address: Department of Crop Sciences
Address: 1102 South Goodwin Avenue
Address: W-201 Turner Hall
City: Urbana
State_or_Province: IL
Postal_Code: 61801-4798
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 217-333-9475
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 217-333-9489
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 217-333-9489
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 217-333-9489
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 217-333-9817
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 217-333-9817
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 217-333-9817
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 217-333-9817
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: s-aref@uiuc.edu
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: rdarmody@uxl.cso.uiuc.edu
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Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
a) Details of the plots Width of smallest plot is 55 m Length of smallest plot is 85 m Slope: 1.2% . Shape: Uniform Details of direction of cultivation: E-W at right-angles to the long-axis Width of Bare Strip around plot: 3m Details of homogeneity of the plots: See Darmody & Peck (1995) [see reference list] b) Details of replication, randomization and controls The experimental design is a factorial but is not randomized. Rotations and fertilizations are confounded with the order of the layout (details in The Morrow Plots - A Century of Learning, Bulletin 775 of Agric. Exp. Station, Univ. Illinois at Urbana-Champaign). Archival files of more than 150 items relating to all known written accounts about this long-term study including the early establishment, field records, scientific papers, and news accounts are available in the University of Illinois Library Archives, University of Illinois Agricultural Library and Agronomy Department.
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Not Available
Completeness_Report:
Not Available
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Not Available
Process_Date: Unknown
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Spatial_Reference_Information:
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Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: UI-UC/CACES/CROPSCI > Department of Crop Sciences, College of Agricultural, Consumer, and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Contact_Person: ROBERT G. DARMODY
Contact_Position: DATA CENTER CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: University of Illinois
Address: Department of Crop Sciences
Address: 1102 South Goodwin Avenue
Address: W-201 Turner Hall
City: Urbana
State_or_Province: IL
Postal_Code: 61801-4798
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 217-333-9489
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 217-333-9817
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: rdarmody@uxl.cso.uiuc.edu
Resource_Description: morrow plots
Distribution_Liability:
Not Available
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: Not Available
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://www.cropsci.uiuc.edu/
Access_Instructions:
DATA CENTER URL
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://agronomyday.cropsci.uiuc.edu/2001/morrow-pl...
Access_Instructions:
This page provides very detailed information about the Morrow plots, as well as photographs, figures, and diagrams.
Fees: Not Available
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Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20000104
Metadata_Review_Date: 20080131
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: TYLER B. STEVENS
Contact_Position: DIF AUTHOR
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Address: Global Change Master Directory
City: Greenbelt
State_or_Province: MD
Postal_Code: 20771
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (301) 614-6898
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 301-614-5268
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: Tyler.B.Stevens@nasa.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: local time
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