Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI)

Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: NOAA/OAR/ESRL/PSD
Publication_Date: ongoing
Title: Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI)
Edition:
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form:
Series_Information:
Series_Name: NOAA Indices and Forecasts
Issue_Identification:
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Boulder, CO, USA
Publisher: NOAA/OAR/ESRL/PSD
Other_Citation_Details:
Online_Linkage: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd//people/klaus.wolter/MEI/
Description:
Abstract:
[Text Source: Klaus Wolter, http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd//people/klaus.wolter/MEI/ Refer to: Wolter and Timlin, 1993, 1998, http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd//people/klaus.wolter/MEI/#ref_wt1 ] El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the most important coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomenon to cause global climate variability on interannual time scales. Here we attempt to monitor ENSO by basing the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI) on the six main observed variables over the tropical Pacific. These six variables are: sea-level pressure (P), zonal (U) and meridional (V) components of the surface wind, sea surface temperature (S), surface air temperature (A), and total cloudiness fraction of the sky (C). These observations have been collected and published in COADS for many years. The MEI is computed separately for each of twelve sliding bi-monthly seasons (Dec/Jan, Jan/Feb,..., Nov/Dec). After spatially filtering the individual fields into clusters (Wolter, 1987), the MEI is calculated as the first unrotated Principal Component (PC) of all six observed fields combined. This is accomplished by normalizing the total variance of each field first, and then performing the extraction of the first PC on the co-variance matrix of the combined fields (Wolter and Timlin, 1993). In order to keep the MEI comparable, all seasonal values are standardized with respect to each season and to the 1950-93 reference period. The MEI is extended during the first week of the following month based on near-real time marine ship and buoy observations (courtesy of Diane Stokes at NCEP) summarized into COADS-compatible 2-degree monthly statistics at NOAA-ESRL PSD. Caution should be exercised when interpreting the MEI on a month-to-month basis, since the input data for updates are not as reliable as COADS, and the MEI has been developed mainly for research purposes. Negative values of the MEI represent the cold ENSO phase, a.k.a.La Niña, while positive MEI values represent the warm ENSO phase (El Niño). See: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd//people/klaus.wolter/MEI/
Purpose:
Not Available
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Wolter, K., and M.S. Timlin, 1998: Measuring the strength of ENSO - how does 1997/98 rank? Weather, 53, 315-324 Rasmusson, E.G., and T.H. Carpenter, 1982: Variations in tropical sea surface temperature and surface wind fields associated with the Southern Oscillation/El NiC1o. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110, 354-384.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Wolter, K., 1987: The Southern Oscillation in surface circulation and climate over the tropical Atlantic, Eastern Pacific, and Indian Oceans as captured by cluster analysis. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 26, 540-558.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Wolter, K., and M.S. Timlin, 1993: Monitoring ENSO in COADS with a seasonally adjusted principal component index. Proc. of the 17th Climate Diagnostics Workshop, Norman, OK, NOAA/N MC/CAC, NSSL, Oklahoma Clim. Survey, CIMMS and the School of Meteor., Univ. of Oklahoma, 52-57.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19500101
Ending_Date: Unknown
Currentness_Reference:Unknown
Status:
Progress: In Work
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -170.0
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -120.0
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 5.0
South_Bounding_Coordinate: -5.0
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD SCIENCE PARAMETERS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ANCILLARY KEYWORDS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO TOPIC CATEGORY
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: DATA SET LANGUAGE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN TEMPERATURE > SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE > SST
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > CLIMATE INDICATORS > ATMOSPHERIC/OCEAN INDICATORS > TELECONNECTIONS > EL NINO SOUTHERN OSCILLATION (ENSO) > MULTIVARIATE ENSO INDEX
Theme_Keyword: Mei
Theme_Keyword: Multivariate Enso Index
Theme_Keyword: Climate Index
Theme_Keyword: Climate Indices
Theme_Keyword: Sst
Theme_Keyword: Enso
Theme_Keyword: Climate Change
Theme_Keyword: CLIMATOLOGY/METEOROLOGY/ATMOSPHERE
Theme_Keyword: ENGLISH
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD
Place_Keyword: OCEAN > PACIFIC OCEAN
Temporal:
Temporal_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD
Temporal_Keyword: Monthly
Temporal_Keyword: Monthly - < Annual
Access_Constraints: Not Available
Use_Constraints:
Not Available
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: KLAUS WOLTER
Contact_Position: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: Klaus.Wolter@noaa.gov
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Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
Not Available
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Not Available
Completeness_Report:
Not Available
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Not Available
Process_Date: Unknown
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Spatial_Reference_Information:
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Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: DOC/NOAA/OAR/ESRL/PSD > Physical Sciences Division, Earth System Research Laboratory, OAR, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Contact_Person: ESRL/PSD DATA INQUIRIES
Contact_Position: DATA CENTER CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: esrl.psd.data@noaa.gov
Resource_Description: MEI Index
Distribution_Liability:
Not Available
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: ascii
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/
Access_Instructions:
DATA CENTER URL
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/correlation/mei....
Access_Instructions:
Access to monthly MEI index data since 1950
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd//people/klaus.wolter/...
Access_Instructions:
Current MEI time series
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd//people/klaus.wolter/...
Access_Instructions:
Access to additional MEI data, plots and documentation.
Fees: None
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Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20051213
Metadata_Review_Date: 20091102
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: SCOTT A. RITZ
Contact_Position: DIF AUTHOR
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Address: Global Change Master Directory
City: Greenbelt
State_or_Province: Maryland
Postal_Code: 20771
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 301-614-5126
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 301-614-5268
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: Scott.A.Ritz@nasa.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: local time
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