Park Grass

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Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: P.R. Poulton
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title: Park Grass
Edition:
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Series_Information:
Series_Name:
Issue_Identification:
Publication_Information:
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Other_Citation_Details:
Online_Linkage: http://www.rothamsted.bbsrc.ac.uk/aen/eusomnet/expts/parkgrass.html
Description:
Abstract:
This experiment began in 1856 at a cool temperate grassland site that was probably grazed for several centuries before the experiment started. A uniformity trial was carried out for several years before the experiment started. The soil at the site is silty clay loam overlying chalk. The land use: Grass cut twice, 1st cut made into hay. Treatments: Main treatments include no N, NH4-N, NH3-N, FYM (+fishmeal) every 4 yrs since 1905. Also P,K,Na,Mg,Si trts. Most plots now split and limed to keep pH at 7,6&5+unlimed. Recent splits no longer receive NaNO3 or (NH4)2SO4 after 130 yrs or FYM+fishmeal after 90 yrs. MEASUREMENTS MADE DURING THE EXPERIMENT a) Vegetation measurements made and frequency Yield: Twice yearly Total above-ground dry matter: Twice yearly since 1960 (excludes "stubble") Total dry matter offtake: 1856-1959 Nitrogen content of offtake: 4 yr periods bulked together, about every 20 years P, K, Ca, Mg, Na. Frequency as for N. Also some trace elements, heavy metals and atmospheric pollutants. b) Soil sampling Details of soil sampling method: 1870-1913 samples taken with a 6"x6"x9" (15.2x15.2x22.9cm) open ended metal box; 1, 2 or 3 holes per plot. In 1876 surface soils taken with a 12x12x9 inch box - 3 holes per plot; subsoils taken with a 6x6x9 inch box - 3 holes per plot. Later samples (1923->) taken with a semicylindrical auger (12-16 cores per plot [or subplot]) bulked together. Outer edges of plots (1m) not sampled. Not all plots were sampled on each occasion. Soil is separated into layers. Details of measuring depths and soil layers: 1870: 0-23, 23-46, 46-69 cm. All plots - 1876: 0-23, 23-46, 46-69, 69-92, 92-115, 115-138 cm. 1878: 0-23, 23-46, 46-69 cm. 1904/6: 0-23, 23-46, 46-69, 69-92, 92-115, 115-139 cm. All plots - 1913: 0-3.8, 3.8-7.6, 7.6-10.2, 10.2-12.7, 12.7-15.2, 15.2-17.8, 17.8-20.3, 20.3-22.9 cm. All plots - 1923/4: 0-23, 23-46 cm. 1932: 0-20 cm - none archived. All plots - 1956/7: 0-15, 15-23, 23-30, 30-38, 38-46, 46-51 cm. All plots - 1959: 0-7.6, 7.6-15.2, 15.2-22.9, 22.9-30.5, 30.5-38.1, 38.1-45.7 cm. 1966, 67, 70, 71: 0-23 cm. All plots - 1974, 75, 76, 77: 0-23 cm. 1979: 0-23 cm. All plots - 1984,91: 0-23+some 0-7.6, 7.6-15.2, 15.2-22.9, 22.9-46, 46-69 cm. Some plots - 1995: 0-23 cm. c) Soil measurements made and frequency Total carbon: Selected plots, depths and years. Method of measuring total carbon: Some early samples by Chromate method then Walkley-Black (with correction factor), combustion or Tinsley. Most recent (1984&91) and some older samples analysed by Tinsley. Biomass carbon: Very limited Method of measuring biomass carbon: Chloroform fumigation - incubation method (Jenkinson & Powlson, 1976). For results see Patra et al (1990). Carbon dioxide evolution: Very limited Total nitrogen: Selected plots, depths and years Method of measuring total nitrogen: Kjeldahl Total mineral nitrogen: Selected plots, depths and years Biomass nitrogen: Very limited Method of measuring biomass nitrogen: Chloroform fumigation - incubation (Jenkinson & Powlson, 1976). For results see Patra et al, (1990). Nitrate nitrogen: Selected treatments Method of measuring nitrate nitrogen: As soil mineral N Ammonium nitrogen: Selected treatments Method of measuring ammonium nitrogen: As soil mineral N Soil bulk density or weight: 20-50 years Method of measuring soil bulk density or weight: Using 6x6x9 inch (15.2x15.2x22.9 cm) open ended metal box or semicylindrical augers of known volume. Other nutrients: Bicarbonate soluble P (Olsen) and other extractants. Exchangeable K, Ca, Mg, Na (Metson) Ammonium acetate and other extractants. Total P (by fusion). pH Atmospheric inputs: Current estimates for N deposition to Rothamsted soils are 40-50 kg N/ha. See Goulding & Poulton (1992) Chemistry in Britain. Dec 1992. Goulding (1990) S.O.M. 6.2 p61-63. See also Jenkinson et al (1994). Other measurements: pH. Heavy metals on selected treatments (in crop & soil). d) Details of the meteorological station Nearest meteorological station to the site: Rothamsted which is .8 km from the site at coordinates 0deg 21min W, 51deg49min N Meteorological data is available from both a manual and an automatic station. e) Meteorological data available and frequency Rainfall: Continuous - read daily Air temperature: Continuous Soil temperature: Read daily at 10 cm depth Wind speed: Continuous Net Radiation: Continuous Sun hours: Continuous Relative humidity: Calculated Potential evapotranspiration: Calculated measured/calculated by Evaporation from open pans. Potential Soil Moisture Deficit calculated using Penman Equation. f) Isotope measurements available and frequency Carbon 13 measurements in vegetation:Very limited Carbon 14 measurements in vegetation: Very limited Nitrogen 15 measurements in vegetation: 1980&81 & residual years 83,86,91. Total soil carbon 13 measurements: Very limited Total soil carbon 14 measurements: Very limited Total soil nitrogen 15 measurements: 1981 & residual years 83,86&91 Details of isotope measurements: C-13 & C-14 work Jenkinson (1969); RES Report (1968) pt.1, 73. N-15 work not yet published. N-15 applied in 1980&81; uptake by grass measured in 1st & residual years. N-15 remaining in soil also measured. g) Archived samples available Archived soil samples: See 'sampling depth' (93. above) dating from 1870 Archived crop samples: 2 cuts annually dating from 1856 Archived inorganic fertilizer samples: Occasionally dating from 1960s Archived organic fertilizer samples: Every 2 years dating from 1960s Other archived samples available: Some botanical separations of the grasses, legumes and herbs have been made at various times. Some, but not all of these separated samples have been archived. DATA AVAILABLE IN ELECTRONIC FORMAT Yield data available in electronic format from 1856 Data available in electronic format for rainfall from 1853 Data available in electronic format for air temperature from 1878 Data available in electronic format for soil temperature from 1931 Data available in electronic format for wind speed from 1946 Data available in electronic format for net radiation from 1931 Data available in electronic format for sun hours from 1890 Data available in electronic format for relative humidity from 1925 This information was compiled for the GCTE-SOMNET Database, Pete Smith, Pete Falloon, David Powlson, and Jo Smith. Soil Science Department, IACR-Rothamsted, UK.
Purpose:
Not Available
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Jenkinson, D.S., Potts, J.M., Perry, J.N., Barnett, V., Coleman, K. & Johnston, A.E. (1994) Trends in herbage yields over the last century on theRothamsted Park Grass Long-Term Continuous Hay Experiment. J. Agric. Sci. 122: 365-374.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Poulton, P.R. (1995) The Park Grass Experiment 1856-1995. In: Evaluation of soil organic matter models using existing, long-term datasets. (eds: D.S. Powlson, P. Smith & J.U. Smith), NATO ASI Series I, Vol. 38, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg: 377-384.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Richardson, H.L. (1938) The nitrogen cycle in grassland soils: with especial reference to the Rothamsted Park Grass Experiment. J. Agric. Sci. 28: 73-121.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Rothamsted Experimental Station (1968) Details of the classical and long-term experiments up to 1967. Lawes Agricultural Trust, Harpenden, U.K., 128pp.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Rothamsted Experimental Station (1977) Details of the classical and long-term experiments 1968-1973. Lawes Agricultural Trust, Harpenden, U.K., 77pp.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Thurston, J.M., Williams, E.D. & Johnston, A.E. (1976) Modern developments in an experiment on permanent grassland started in 1856: Effects of fertilisers and lime on botanical composition and crop and soil analysis. Ann. Agron. 27: 1043-1082.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Warren, R.G. & Johnston, A.E. (1964) The Park Grass Experiment. Rothamsted Experimental Station Report for 1963, part 2: 240262.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 18560101
Ending_Date: Unknown
Currentness_Reference:Unknown
Status:
Progress: In Work
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -0.36
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -0.34
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 51.82
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 51.81
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD SCIENCE PARAMETERS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: PROJECT
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ANCILLARY KEYWORDS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO TOPIC CATEGORY
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: DATA SET LANGUAGE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS > FERTILIZERS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > AGRICULTURAL PLANT SCIENCE > IRRIGATION
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > CALCIUM
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > CARBON > BIOMASS CARBON
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > CARBON > CARBON 13 ISOTOPE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > CARBON > CARBON 14 ISOTOPE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > CARBON > CARBON DIOXIDE EVOLUTION
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > CARBON > TOTAL CARBON
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > MAGNESIUM
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > NITROGEN > AMMONIUM
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > NITROGEN > BIOMASS NITROGEN
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > NITROGEN > MINERAL NITROGEN
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > NITROGEN > NITRATE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > NITROGEN > NITROGEN 15 ISOTOPE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > NITROGEN > TOTAL NITROGEN
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > ORGANIC MATTER
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > PHOSPHORUS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > POTASSIUM
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > SOIL SALINITY/SOIL SODICITY
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > SOIL GAS/AIR
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > SOIL PH
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > SOIL TEMPERATURE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE > AIR TEMPERATURE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR > EVAPOTRANSPIRATION
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR > HUMIDITY
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR > WATER VAPOR
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC WINDS > SURFACE WINDS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > PRECIPITATION > RAIN
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION > NET RADIATION
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION > SUNSHINE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > VEGETATION > BIOMASS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > VEGETATION > CARBON
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > VEGETATION > NITROGEN
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > VEGETATION > NUTRIENTS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > VEGETATION > PHOSPHORUS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > VEGETATION > PLANT CHARACTERISTICS > CARBON 13 ISOTOPE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > VEGETATION > PLANT CHARACTERISTICS > CARBON 14 ISOTOPE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > VEGETATION > PLANT CHARACTERISTICS > NITROGEN 15 ISOTOPE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > CALCIUM
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > CARBON > BIOMASS CARBON
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > CARBON > CARBON 13 ISOTOPE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > CARBON > CARBON 14 ISOTOPE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > CARBON > CARBON DIOXIDE EVOLUTION
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > MAGNESIUM
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > NITROGEN > AMMONIUM
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > NITROGEN > BIOMASS NITROGEN
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > NITROGEN > MINERAL NITROGEN
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > NITROGEN > NITRATE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > NITROGEN > NITROGEN 15 ISOTOPE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > ORGANIC MATTER
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > PHOSPHORUS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > POTASSIUM
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > SOIL SALINITY/SOIL SODICITY
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > SOIL GAS/AIR
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > SOIL PH
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > SOIL TEMPERATURE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > HEAVY METALS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > HEAVY METALS
Theme_Keyword: GCTE > GLOBAL CHANGE AND TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS, IGBP
Theme_Keyword: Gcte
Theme_Keyword: Global Change And Terestrial Ecosystems
Theme_Keyword: Iacr
Theme_Keyword: Igbp
Theme_Keyword: Institute Of Arable Crops Research
Theme_Keyword: International Geosphere Biosphere Program
Theme_Keyword: Rothamsted
Theme_Keyword: Soil Organic Matter Network
Theme_Keyword: Somnet
Theme_Keyword: FARMING
Theme_Keyword: BIOTA
Theme_Keyword: CLIMATOLOGY/METEOROLOGY/ATMOSPHERE
Theme_Keyword: GEOSCIENTIFIC INFORMATION
Theme_Keyword: ENGLISH
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > EUROPE > NORTHERN EUROPE > BRITISH ISLES > UNITED KINGDOM
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints:
Link to the following location to view data use policy of SOMNET members: 'http://www.rothamsted.bbsrc.ac.uk/aen/somnet/index.htm'
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: PAUL R. POULTON
Contact_Position: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: IACR-Rothamsted
Address: AL5 2JQ.
City: Harpenden
State_or_Province: Hertfordshire
Country: UNITED KINGDOM
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +44 (0)1582 763133
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +44 (0)1582 760981
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Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
a) Details of the plots Width of smallest plot is 19.3 m Length of smallest plot is 25.2 m Width of largest plot is 11.3 m Length of largest plot is 6.6 m Slope: 0 . Shape: Uniform Details of homogeneity of the plots: Plot boundaries are very sharp, extending no more than 0.5m into the plot. Transects taken across some plots show pH to be fairly uniform and soluble P and other nutrients showing greater variability (not published) with coefficients of variation of about 10-15%. Herbage is less uniform on more acid plots, but currently a great amount of work is being done on species composition etc. b) Details of replication, randomization and controls There are no replicates in the experiment. Although there are two control plots, none of the other treatments are replicated, unless one considers some of the lower pH subplots as replicates. There are control plots described as follows: There are two control plots (three if you count one which has been unmanured since 1864 after 8 years FYM). Thes plots have been split in 1903 and again in 1965 for a chalk treatment but one level of chalk is Nil. (Thurston et al, 1976). N.B. The whole experiment was chalked in the 1880s. All yields data have been rigorously checked by referring back to original notebooks etc., prior to entry onto database.
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Not Available
Completeness_Report:
Not Available
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Not Available
Process_Date: Unknown
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Spatial_Reference_Information:
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Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: RRES/GCTE SOMNET/EUROSOMNET > European Soil Organic Matter Network, Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems Soil Organic Matter Network, Rothamsted Research
Contact_Person: PETER FALLOON
Contact_Position: DATA CENTER CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Agriculture & Environment Division,
Address: Rothamsted Research,
Address: Harpenden,
Address: Herts. AL5 2JQ UK.
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +44 (0)1582 763133 x2110
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +44 (0)1582 760981
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: Pete.Falloon@bbsrc.ac.uk
Resource_Description: IACR.ParkGrass
Distribution_Liability:
Not Available
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: Not Available
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://www.rothamsted.bbsrc.ac.uk/aen/eusomnet/
Access_Instructions:
DATA CENTER URL
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://www.rothamsted.bbsrc.ac.uk/aen/somnet/index...
Access_Instructions:
This url links to the GCTE-SOMNET home page where additional project information and methodology can be obtained. This site is currently in a datasharing phase of the network where actual data will become available shortly, at different levels of accessibility. Please follow this link for more information.
Fees: Not Available
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Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date:
Metadata_Review_Date: 20060511
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: TYLER B. STEVENS
Contact_Position: DIF AUTHOR
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Address: Global Change Master Directory
City: Greenbelt
State_or_Province: MD
Postal_Code: 20771
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (301) 614-6898
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 301-614-5268
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: Tyler.B.Stevens@nasa.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: local time
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