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Broadbalk Wheat Experiment

Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Paul R. Poulton
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title: Broadbalk Wheat Experiment
Edition:
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form:
Series_Information:
Series_Name:
Issue_Identification:
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place:
Publisher:
Other_Citation_Details:
Online_Linkage: http://www.rothamsted.bbsrc.ac.uk/aen/eusomnet/expts/broadbal.html
Description:
Abstract:
This experiment began in 1843. The site was possibly farmed since Roman times (i.e at least 1500 years). Map of 1623 shows field in arable use. 1839-1843 arable crops: turnips, barley, peas, wheat, oats. The soil is Clay-with-flint overlying chalk; see Avery & Catt, The Soil at Rothamsted (see reference list) for full details. The average climatic conditions at the experimental site are: Minimum annual temperature of 5.1 deg C, mean annual temperature of 9.1 deg C, maximum annual temperature of 13 deg C, minimum annual rainfall of 409 mm, mean annual rainfall of 693 mm, and maximum annual rainfall of 983 mm. There have been 5 management regimes: 1) Continuous wheat 1844 onwards (occasional fallows). [field divided into 5 sections in 1926 to allow regular fallowing to control weeds and into 10 sections in 1968 to include rotations] 2) Potatoes-beans-wheat (1968-1979). 3) Fallow-wheat-wheat (1968-1981). 4) Fallow-potatoes-wheat-wheat-wheat (1982-1998). 5) Oats-maize-wheat-wheat-wheat (1996 onwards). Treatments (all regimes) are as follows: a) nil since 1852, b) FYM since 1844, c) FYM since 1885 plus N2 since 1968, d) FYM plus N4PK since 1968 (not continuous wheat), e) N0PK(Na)Mg since 1852, f) N1PK(Na)Mg since 1852, g) N2PK(Na)Mg since 1852, h) N3PK(Na)Mg since 1852, i) N4PK(Na)Mg since 1968, j) N5PK(Na)Mg since 1985, k) N6PK(Na)Mg since 1985. Other treatments receive NPK either singly or in various combinations. One treatment received rape cake then castor meal until 1988. (Na) - last applied 1973. FYM = 35 t/ha of farmyard manure: fresh it contains about 200-250 kgN/ha, 40 kgP/ha & 210 kgK/ha. P=35kgP/ha, K=90kgK/ha (P&K both annually). Mg = 35 kgMg/ha every 3rd year. N1, N2, N3, N4, N5, N6 = 48, 96, 144, 192, 240 & 288 kg N/ha/year as ammonium nitrate (N applied as ammonium sulphate to most plots until 1967). FYM and N will not be applied to oats in new oats-maize-wheat-wheat-wheat rotation. Of the 10 sections, 5 are in continuous wheat; straw has been incorporated in one since 1986, one has never received herbicides (fallowed every 5 years), one receives no fungicides. 5 sections are in the 5 year rotation. All sections have received chalk regularly since the 1950's. Variables measured can be found in the Parameters section of this record. Frequency of measurements varies for each variable (Daily for weather, periodically for others, rarely for some). For detailed sampling methodology, see SOMNET site, or publications listed in references section on this record. This information was compiled for the GCTE-SOMNET Database, Pete Smith, Pete Falloon, David Powlson, and Jo Smith. Soil Science Department, IACR-Rothamsted, UK.
Purpose:
Not Available
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Avery, B.W. & Catt. J.A. (1995) The soil at Rothamsted. Lawes Agricultural Trust, Rothamsted, Harpenden, U.K.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Dyke, G.V., George, B.J., Johnston, A.E., Poulton, P.R. & Todd, A.D. (1983) The Broadbalk Wheat Experiment 1968-78: Yields and Plant Nutrients in Crops Grown Continuously and in Rotation. Rothamsted Experimental Station. Report for 1982, Part 2: 5-44 (and references therein).
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Garner, H.V. & Dyke, G.V. (1969) The Broadbalk yields. Rothamsted Experimental Station. Report for 1968, Part 2: 26-49.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Hart, P.B.S., Powlson, D.S., Poulton, P.R., Johnston, A.E. & Jenkinson, D.S. (1993) The availability of the nitrogen in the crop residues of winter wheat to subsequent crops. J. Agric. Sci. 121: 355-362.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Jenkinson, D.S. (1990) The turnover of organic carbon and nitrogen in soil. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. (1990) 53-60..
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Johnston, A.E. & Garner, H.V. (1969) Broadbalk: Historical Introduction. Rothamsted Experimental Station. Report for 1968, Part 2: 1-17.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Johnston, A.E. (1969) Plant nutrients in Broadbalk soils. Rothamsted Experimental Station. Report for 1968, Part 2: 93-115 (and references therein).
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Johnston, A.E. (1969) Plant nutrients in crops grown on Broadbalk. Rothamsted Experimental Station. Report for 1968, Part 2: 50-62.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 18430101
Ending_Date: Unknown
Currentness_Reference:Unknown
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -0.4
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -0.3
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 51.84
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 51.79
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD SCIENCE PARAMETERS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: PROJECT
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ANCILLARY KEYWORDS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO TOPIC CATEGORY
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: DATA SET LANGUAGE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS > FERTILIZERS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > AGRICULTURAL PLANT SCIENCE > CROP/PLANT YIELDS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > AGRICULTURAL PLANT SCIENCE > CROPPING SYSTEMS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > ANIMAL SCIENCE > ANIMAL MANURE AND WASTE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > CARBON > BIOMASS CARBON
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > CARBON > CARBON DIOXIDE EVOLUTION
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > CARBON > TOTAL CARBON
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > NITROGEN > AMMONIUM NITROGEN
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > NITROGEN > BIOMASS NITROGEN
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > NITROGEN > NITRATE NITROGEN
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > NITROGEN > TOTAL MINERAL NITROGEN
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > NITROGEN > TOTAL NITROGEN
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > ORGANIC MATTER
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > SOIL BULK DENSITY
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > VEGETATION > BIOMASS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > VEGETATION > NITROGEN
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > CARBON > BIOMASS CARBON
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > CARBON > CARBON DIOXIDE EVOLUTION
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > NITROGEN > AMMONIUM NITROGEN
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > NITROGEN > BIOMASS NITROGEN
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > NITROGEN > NITRATE NITROGEN
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > NITROGEN > TOTAL MINERAL NITROGEN
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > SOIL BULK DENSITY
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY > NITROGEN COMPOUNDS > MOLECULAR NITROGEN > NITROGEN DEPOSITION
Theme_Keyword: GCTE > GLOBAL CHANGE AND TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS, IGBP
Theme_Keyword: Aquic Paleudalf
Theme_Keyword: Avena
Theme_Keyword: Chromic Alisol
Theme_Keyword: Chromic Luvisol
Theme_Keyword: Gcte
Theme_Keyword: Global Change And Terestrial Ecosystems
Theme_Keyword: Igbp
Theme_Keyword: International Geosphere Biosphere Program
Theme_Keyword: Maize
Theme_Keyword: Oats
Theme_Keyword: Potato
Theme_Keyword: Soil Organic Matter Network
Theme_Keyword: Solanum Sp.
Theme_Keyword: Somnet
Theme_Keyword: Triticum
Theme_Keyword: Typic Paleudalf
Theme_Keyword: Wheat
Theme_Keyword: Zea Mays
Theme_Keyword: FARMING
Theme_Keyword: BIOTA
Theme_Keyword: CLIMATOLOGY/METEOROLOGY/ATMOSPHERE
Theme_Keyword: ECONOMY
Theme_Keyword: ENVIRONMENT
Theme_Keyword: GEOSCIENTIFIC INFORMATION
Theme_Keyword: ENGLISH
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > EUROPE > NORTHERN EUROPE > BRITISH ISLES > UNITED KINGDOM
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > EUROPE
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > EUROPE > WESTERN EUROPE
Temporal:
Temporal_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD
Temporal_Keyword: Varies By Parameter Measured
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints:
Link to the following location to view data use policy of SOMNET members: 'http://www.rothamsted.bbsrc.ac.uk/aen/somnet/index.htm'
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: PAUL R. POULTON
Contact_Position: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: IACR-Rothamsted
Address: AL5 2JQ.
City: Harpenden
State_or_Province: Hertfordshire
Country: UNITED KINGDOM
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +44 (0)1582 763133
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +44 (0)1582 760981
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Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
Width of smallest plot is 4 m Length of smallest plot is 23 m Width of largest plot is 6 m Length of largest plot is 320 m Slope: 2% on 2/5 of experiment . Shape: Uniform Details of direction of cultivation: Parallel to long-axis of plots Width of Bare Strip around plot: 1-1.5m paths. Width of Discard Strip around plot: 6.0m discard strip between sections. Details of homogeneity of the plots: Variability within plots: most plots are about 6.0m wide. Transects taken across several plots indicate that soil movement has occurred and that there is a gradient across the unplanted path extending about 1m into the plot. Soil and crop samples are therefore taken from within the central area (4.0m) and excluding a 1m strip on each side. Within this area, soil analysis shows that for C, N, pH Olsen P etc. the plots are reasonably uniform, c.v. about 10% (more for microbial biomass). There are at least 0 replicates in the experiment. No true replication but the experiment was divided into 10 sections in 1968 (previously into 5 sections in 1926). Therefore, plots on sections 1 and 9 can be regarded as replicates. Sections 2,3,4,5 and 7 could be regarded as replicates over a five year period (i.e. the length of one rotation). There are control plots described as follows: Nil inputs plot included which has received no inorganic fertilizers or organic manures since 1852. Nil plot does get chalk and pesticides on a regular basis. Also an area fenced off in 1882 and allowed to revert to natural woodland (see SOMNET entry on Broadbalk Wilderness). Thorough scrutiny at point of entering onto electronic database (in 1995). Some soil and crop samples from archive have been reanalysed retrospectively; no unexplained discrepancies observed to date.
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Not Available
Completeness_Report:
Not Available
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Not Available
Process_Date: Unknown
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Spatial_Reference_Information:
Vertical_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Altitude_System_Definition:
Altitude_Datum_Name: Not Available
Altitude_Resolution: 23 cm
Altitude_Distance_Units: Not Available
Altitude_Encoding_Method: Implicit coordinate
Depth_System_Definition:
Depth_Datum_Name: Not Available
Depth_Resolution: 23 cm
Depth_Distance_Units: Not Available
Depth_Encoding_Method: Implicit coordinate
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Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: RRES/GCTE SOMNET/EUROSOMNET > European Soil Organic Matter Network, Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems Soil Organic Matter Network, Rothamsted Research
Contact_Person: PETER FALLOON
Contact_Position: DATA CENTER CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Agriculture & Environment Division,
Address: Rothamsted Research,
Address: Harpenden,
Address: Herts. AL5 2JQ UK.
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +44 (0)1582 763133 x2110
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +44 (0)1582 760981
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: Pete.Falloon@bbsrc.ac.uk
Resource_Description: Broadbalk Wheat Experiment
Distribution_Liability:
Not Available
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: Not Available
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://www.rothamsted.bbsrc.ac.uk/aen/eusomnet/
Access_Instructions:
DATA CENTER URL
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://www.rothamsted.bbsrc.ac.uk/aen/somnet/index...
Access_Instructions:
This url links to the GCTE-SOMNET home page where additional project information and methodology can be obtained. This site is currently in a datasharing phase of the network where actual data will become available shortly, at different levels of accessibility. Please follow this link for more information.
Fees: Not Available
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Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 19991020
Metadata_Review_Date: 20161118
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: TYLER B. STEVENS
Contact_Position: DIF AUTHOR
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Address: Global Change Master Directory
City: Greenbelt
State_or_Province: MD
Postal_Code: 20771
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (301) 614-6898
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 301-614-5268
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: Tyler.B.Stevens@nasa.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: local time
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