The fundamental physiology and biology processes of Sterechinus neumayeri embryos and larvae and how they are affected by increased UV radiation, McMurdo Sound

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Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Unknown
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title: The fundamental physiology and biology processes of Sterechinus neumayeri embryos and larvae and how they are affected by increased UV radiation, McMurdo Sound
Description:
Abstract:
Three key processes in the embryos and larvae of the sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri were examined to determine how they respond to environmental changes. In situ experiments were carried out at Cape Evans and on the sea ice edge with the blastula/gastrula larval stage. 1. Genetic expression of the photolyase enzyme: Embryos were exposed to ambient UVR at varying depths (0.5, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 20m depth) under the sea ice and treating the larvae to one of three light treatments (Full UVR, No UVR and No UVB) and varying the number of days of exposure (5, 8 and 12 days). Embryos were examined for developmental abnormalities, subsamples removed for RNA and protein extraction and the remaining samples preserved for later DNA dimer quantification. Photolyase expression and DNA damage were analysed. 2. Quantification of oxidative stress: Embryos were exposed to ambient UVR in situ using the same experiments as above. The degree of oxidative stress was examined from the expression of the superoxide dismutase gene and protein transcription. At the same time, oxidative stress was also examined in vivo for anti-oxidant enzyme activities in embryos. Ambient concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide were quantified using flow injection analysis of the chemiluminescence reactions. 3. The effects of pH: Embryos were reared at densities of 10 per ml in airtight chambers containing seawater at either normal or at a lowered pH. During experiments regular samples were collected and survival rates, growth and development, and skeletal rod formation quantified. Samples of larvae were collected, bleached to remove tissue and viewed under SEM to quantify fine scale structures and skeletal density. Larvae were also reared in larger containers (20L) at experimental pH (8.0, 7.5) and after a predetermined period, concentrated, dried at 60°C for 2 days, weighted then ashed at 400°C for 5 hours and reweighed for ash content. Samples were also taken for x-ray defraction to quantify the Mg concentration in the calcite skeletons.
Purpose:
Not Available
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Clark, D., Lamare, M. And Barker, M. 2009. Response of sea urchin pluteus larvae (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) to reduced seawater pH: a comparison among a tropical, temperate and a polar species. Marine Biology 156: 1125-1137.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Lister, N.K., Lamare, M.D. and Burritt, D.J. 2010. Sea ice protects the embryos of the Antarctic sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri from oxidative damage due to naturally enhanced levels of UV-B radiation. The Journal of Experimental Biology 213: 1967-1975.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 20071026
Ending_Date: 20071111
Currentness_Reference:Unknown
Status:
Progress: In Work
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: 165.65
East_Bounding_Coordinate: 166.4167
North_Bounding_Coordinate: -77.6344
South_Bounding_Coordinate: -77.6361
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD SCIENCE PARAMETERS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO TOPIC CATEGORY
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: DATA SET LANGUAGE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION > ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN OPTICS > ATTENUATION/TRANSMISSION
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > ANIMALS/INVERTEBRATES > ECHINODERMS > SEA URCHINS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS > PLANKTON > ZOOPLANKTON
Theme_Keyword: BIOTA
Theme_Keyword: ENVIRONMENT
Theme_Keyword: OCEANS
Theme_Keyword: ENGLISH
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > AUSTRALIA/NEW ZEALAND > NEW ZEALAND
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > MCMURDO SOUND
Place_Keyword: GEOGRAPHIC REGION > POLAR
Access_Constraints: Not Available
Use_Constraints:
Not Available
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: MILES LAMARE
Contact_Position: INVESTIGATOR
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Department of Marine Science
Address: University of Otago
Address: PO Box 56
City: Dunedin
Country: New Zealand
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +64 3 479 7463
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +64 3 479 8336
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: miles.lamare@stonebow.otago.ac.nz
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Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
Any collected samples get destroyed in their analysis. Field notebooks are held by the investigator, please contact for more information.
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Not Available
Completeness_Report:
Not Available
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Not Available
Process_Date: Unknown
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Spatial_Reference_Information:
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Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: NZ/NZAI/ANZ > Antarctica New Zealand, New Zealand Antarctic Institute, New Zealand
Contact_Person: SHULAMIT GORDON
Contact_Position: DATA CENTER CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Antarctica New Zealand
Address: Private Bag 4745
City: Christchurch
Country: New Zealand
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +64 3 358 0200
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +64 3 358 0211
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: s.gordon@antarcticanz.govt.nz
Resource_Description: K068_2007_2008_NZ_1
Distribution_Liability:
Not Available
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: Not Available
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://www.antarcticanz.govt.nz/
Access_Instructions:
DATA CENTER URL
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://www.otago.ac.nz/marinesciencehttp://www.ota...
Access_Instructions:
Fees: Not Available
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Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20051101
Metadata_Review_Date: 20100830
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: SHULAMIT GORDON
Contact_Position: DIF AUTHOR
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Antarctica New Zealand
Address: Private Bag 4745
City: Christchurch
Country: New Zealand
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +64 3 358 0200
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +64 3 358 0211
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: s.gordon@antarcticanz.govt.nz
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: local time
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