The whole Hapex-Sahel experience data

Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Unknown
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title: The whole Hapex-Sahel experience data
Description:
Abstract:
HAPEX-Sahel: the Hydrology-Atmosphere Pilot Experiment in the Sahel, 1990-1992. (The following text is an extract of : Geographical, biological and remote sensing aspects of the Hydrologic Atmospheric Pilot Experiment in the Sahel (HAPEX SAHEL) by S.D. Prince, Y.H. Kerr, J.-P. Goutorbe, T. Lebel, A. Tinga, J. Brouwer, A.J. Dolman, E.T. Engman, J.H.C. Gash, M. Hoepffner, P. Kabat, B. Monteny, F. Said, P. Sellers, J. Wallace, to be published in RSE) HAPEX-Sahel (Hydrological and Atmospheric Pilot Experiment in the Sahel) is an international land-surface-atmosphere observation program that was undertaken in western Niger, in the west African Sahel region. The overall aims were to improve our understanding of the role of the Sahel on the general circulation, in particular the effects of the large interannual fluctuations of land surface conditions in this region and, in turn, to develop ideas about how the general circulation is related to the persistent droughts that have affected the Sahel during the last 25 years. The field program obtained measurements of atmospheric, surface and certain sub-surface processes in a 1deg x1deg area that incorporates examples of many of the major land surface types found throughout the Sahel. An important consideration was that the data must to be applicable to the scales of current general circulation models (GCM). In order to obtain data for this large area, an extensive measurement program was undertaken including field, aircraft, and satellite remote sensing measurements, mainly between mid1990 and late1992. An intensive operations period was undertaken for 8 weeks from mid to late growing season of 1992. HAPEX- Sahel was initiated in response to the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Global Energy and Water Cycles Experiment (GEWEX) which aims to determine the fluxes of water and energy globally in order to quantify the energetic processes of the Earth's climate system and the forcing functions on the ocean, land, ice and vegetation. GEWEX recognizes the need for more realistic measurements of major global environments, especially critical areas that are thought to have strong influences on the general circulation. It is possible to have on-line information: 'http://www.ird.fr/hapex/'
Purpose:
Not Available
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Andre, J.-C., Goutorbe, J.-P., Perrier, A., Becker, F., Bessemoulin, P., Bougeault, P., Brunet, Y., Brutsaert, W., Carlson, T., Cuenca, R., Gash, J., Hildebrand, P., Lagouarde, P., Lloyd, C., Mahrt, L., Mascart, P., Mazaudier, C., Noilhan, J., Ottl, C., Payen, M., Phulpin, T., Stull, R., Shuttleworth, J., Schmugge, T., Taconet, O., Tarrieu, C., Thepenier, R.-M., Valencogne, C., Vidal-Madjar, D., and Weill, A., 1988. Evaporation over land surfaces: first results from HAPEX-MOBILHY special observing period. Annals Geophysicae, 6, 477-492.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Bolle, H.J., Andre, J.-C., Arrue, J.L., Barth, H.K., Bessemoulin, P., Brasa, A., de Bruin, H.A.R., Dugdale, G., Engman, E.T., Evans, D.L., Fantechi, R., Fiedler, F., van de Griend, A., Imeson, A.C., Jochum, A., Kabat, P., Kratzsch, T., Lagouarde, J.P., Langer, I., Llamas, R., Lopes-Baeza, E., Meli Miralles, J., Muniosguren, L.S., Nerry, F., Noilhan, J., Oliver, H.R., Roth, R., Sanchez Diaz, J., de Santa Alalla, M., Shuttleworth, W.J., Sogaard, H., Stricker, H., Thornes, J., Vauclin, M., and Wickland, D., 1993. European Field Experiment in a Desertification threatened Area. Annals Geophysicae (in press).
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Goutorbe, J.P., Lebel, T., Tinga, A., Dolman, H., Engman, E.T., Gash, J.G.C., Kabat, P., Kerr, Y.H., Monteny, B., Prince, S.D., Sellers, P., Wallace, J., and Hoepffner, M., August 1992. Experiment Plan for HAPEX- Sahel. ORSTOM, Montpellier.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Goutorbe, J.P., Lebel, T., Tinga, A., Bessemoulin, P., Brouwer, J., Dolman, H., Engman, E.T., Gash, J.G.C., Hoepffner, M., Kabat, P., Kerr, Y.H., Monteny, B., Prince, S.D., Said, F., Sellers, P., and Wallace, J., 1992. HAPEX-SAHEL: A large scale study of land atmosphere interactions in the semi-arid tropics. Submitted to Annales Geophysicae. Justice, C.O., 1986, (Editor). Special Iss ue of the International Journal of Remote Sensing, 7, 1383-1622.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Lebel, T., Sauvageot, H., Hoepffner, M., Desbois,M., Guillot, B., and Hebert, P., 1992. Rainfall estimation in the Sahel: the EPSAT-NIGER experiment. Hydrological Sciences, 37, 201-215.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Sellers, P.J., H all, F.G., Asrar, G., Strebel, D.E., and Murphy, R.E., 1988, The first ISLSCP field experiment (FIFE). Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 69, 22-27.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Sivakumar, M.V.K., 1989. Agroclimatic aspects of rainfed agriculture in the Sudano-Sahelian Zone. In Soil, Crop and Water Management in the Sudano-Sahelian Zone. Proceedings of an International Workshop 11-16 January 1987, ICRISAT Sahelian Center, Niamey, Niger, edited by C. Renard, R.J. Van Den Beldt, and J.F. Parr. pp17-38.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19920601
Ending_Date: 19921231
Currentness_Reference:Unknown
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: 2.0
East_Bounding_Coordinate: 3.0
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 14.0
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 13.0
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD SCIENCE PARAMETERS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD PLATFORM
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD INSTRUMENT
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: PROJECT
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ANCILLARY KEYWORDS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO TOPIC CATEGORY
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > AEROSOLS > AEROSOL EXTINCTION
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > AEROSOLS > AEROSOL RADIANCE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY > TRACE GASES/TRACE SPECIES
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC PHENOMENA > DROUGHT
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE > ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE > AIR TEMPERATURE > WET BULB TEMPERATURE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE > POTENTIAL TEMPERATURE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR > EVAPORATION
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR > EVAPOTRANSPIRATION
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR > HUMIDITY
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR > WATER VAPOR > HUMIDITY
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC WINDS > SURFACE WINDS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > CLOUDS > CLOUD PROPERTIES > CLOUD FREQUENCY
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > PRECIPITATION > PRECIPITATION AMOUNT
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > PRECIPITATION > RAIN
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION > ABSORPTION
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION > ALBEDO
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION > EMISSIVITY
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION > HEAT FLUX > LATENT HEAT FLUX
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION > INCOMING SOLAR RADIATION
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION > LONGWAVE RADIATION
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION > OPTICAL DEPTH/THICKNESS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION > REFLECTANCE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION > SOLAR IRRADIANCE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION > SOLAR RADIATION > NET RADIATION
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION > TRANSMITTANCE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS > AGRICULTURAL LANDS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS > DESERTS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS > GRASSLANDS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS > SAVANNAS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS > SHRUBLAND/SCRUB
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > VEGETATION > BIOMASS > HERB BIOMASS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > VEGETATION > LEAF CHARACTERISTICS > LEAF AREA INDEX
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > VEGETATION > PLANT CHARACTERISTICS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > VEGETATION > VEGETATION COVER > NDVI
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > VEGETATION > VEGETATION INDEX
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > HUMAN DIMENSIONS > INFRASTRUCTURE > CULTURAL FEATURES
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > GROUND WATER > GROUND WATER DISCHARGE/FLOW
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > GROUND WATER > GROUNDWATER CHEMISTRY
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > GROUND WATER > INFILTRATION
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > SURFACE WATER > RUNOFF
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > LAND TEMPERATURE > LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > SOIL DEPTH
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > SOIL HEAT BUDGET
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > SOIL MOISTURE/WATER CONTENT
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > SOIL STRUCTURE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > SOIL TEMPERATURE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SURFACE RADIATIVE PROPERTIES > EMISSIVITY
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SURFACE RADIATIVE PROPERTIES > REFLECTANCE > BIDIRECTIONAL REFLECTANCE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SURFACE RADIATIVE PROPERTIES > REFLECTANCE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SURFACE RADIATIVE PROPERTIES > THERMAL PROPERTIES
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > TOPOGRAPHY > SURFACE ROUGHNESS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > SPECTRAL/ENGINEERING > INFRARED WAVELENGTHS > BRIGHTNESS TEMPERATURE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > SPECTRAL/ENGINEERING > INFRARED WAVELENGTHS > INFRARED FLUX
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > SPECTRAL/ENGINEERING > INFRARED WAVELENGTHS > INFRARED IMAGERY
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > SPECTRAL/ENGINEERING > INFRARED WAVELENGTHS > THERMAL INFRARED
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > SPECTRAL/ENGINEERING > VISIBLE WAVELENGTHS > SENSOR COUNTS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > SPECTRAL/ENGINEERING > VISIBLE WAVELENGTHS > VISIBLE FLUX
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > SPECTRAL/ENGINEERING > VISIBLE WAVELENGTHS > VISIBLE IMAGERY
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY > CARBON AND HYDROCARBON COMPOUNDS > CARBON DIOXIDE > CO2 FLUX
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS > ECOSYSTEM FUNCTIONS > BIOMASS DYNAMICS
Theme_Keyword: AIRCRAFT
Theme_Keyword: GROUND STATIONS
Theme_Keyword: ERS-1 > EUROPEAN REMOTE SENSING SATELLITE-1
Theme_Keyword: NOAA-11 > NATIONAL OCEANIC & ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION-11
Theme_Keyword: NOAA-12 > NATIONAL OCEANIC & ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION-12
Theme_Keyword: SPOT-1 > SYSTEME PROBATOIRE POUR L'OBSERVATION DE LA TERRE-1
Theme_Keyword: SPOT-2 > SYSTEME PROBATOIRE POUR L'OBSERVATION DE LA TERRE-2
Theme_Keyword: SAR > SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR
Theme_Keyword: AMI > ACTIVE MICROWAVE INSTRUMENT
Theme_Keyword: AVHRR > ADVANCED VERY HIGH RESOLUTION RADIOMETER
Theme_Keyword: NS-001 TMS > NS-001 THEMATIC MAPPER SIMULATOR
Theme_Keyword: POLDER-1 > POLARIZATION/DIRECTIONALITY OF THE EARTH'S REFLECTANCE-1
Theme_Keyword: PORTOS > RADIOMETER HYPER-FREQUENCE MULTI-FREQUENCE
Theme_Keyword: TIMS > THERMAL INFRARED MULTISPECTRAL SCANNER
Theme_Keyword: WCRP > WORLD CLIMATE RESEARCH PROGRAM
Theme_Keyword: Aircraft Centre Aviation Meterologique
Theme_Keyword: Arat
Theme_Keyword: Avion De Recherche Atmospherique Et De Teledetection
Theme_Keyword: Biosphere
Theme_Keyword: Cd-rom
Theme_Keyword: Hapex
Theme_Keyword: Idn_node Esrin/c
Theme_Keyword: Merlin
Theme_Keyword: Sahel
Theme_Keyword: FARMING
Theme_Keyword: BIOTA
Theme_Keyword: CLIMATOLOGY/METEOROLOGY/ATMOSPHERE
Theme_Keyword: ELEVATION
Theme_Keyword: GEOSCIENTIFIC INFORMATION
Theme_Keyword: IMAGERY/BASE MAPS/EARTH COVER
Theme_Keyword: INLAND WATERS
Theme_Keyword: SOCIETY
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > AFRICA > WESTERN AFRICA > NIGER
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > AFRICA > NIGER
Place_Keyword: GEOGRAPHIC REGION > SAHEL
Access_Constraints: Not Available
Use_Constraints:
Not Available
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: YANN, DR. KERR
Contact_Position: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: CESBIO
Address: bpi 2801
Address: 18 Avenue E. Belin
Address: TOULOUSE CEDEX 4
Postal_Code: 31401
Country: FRANCE
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +33 5 61 55 85 22
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +33 5 61 55 85 00
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: Yann.Kerr@cesbio.cnes.fr
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Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
Not Available
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Not Available
Completeness_Report:
Not Available
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Not Available
Process_Date: Unknown
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Spatial_Reference_Information:
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Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: IRD/HAPEX-SAHEL > Hapex Sahel Information System, L'Institut de Recherche pour Le developpement
Contact_Person: HAPEX-SAHEL CONTACT
Contact_Position: DATA CENTER CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: HAPEX SAHEL Information System
Address: c/o CESBIO - BP 2801
Address: 31401 TOULOUSE CEDEX 4
Postal_Code: 31401
Country: FRANCE
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +33 (0)5.61.55.85.00
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +33 (0)5.61.55.85.01
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: Hapex-web@cesbio.cnes.fr
Resource_Description: HAPEX-DATA
Distribution_Liability:
Not Available
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://www.ird.fr/hapex/
Access_Instructions:
DATA CENTER URL
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Fees: Not Available
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Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date:
Metadata_Review_Date: 20040317
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: GCMD User Support Office
Contact_Organization: NASA Global Change Master Directory
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Not Available
City: Lanham
State_or_Province: MD
Postal_Code: 20706
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: Not Available
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gcmduso@gcmd.gsfc.nasa.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: local time
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