Monthly mean lower stratospheric temperatures above Australian Antarctic stations.

Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Unknown
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title: Monthly mean lower stratospheric temperatures above Australian Antarctic stations.
Description:
Abstract:
INDICATOR DEFINITION Monthly means of daily temperatures at the 100hPa level (lower stratosphere), from radiosonde soundings above Australian Antarctic stations Casey, Davis, Mawson and Macquarie Island. TYPE OF INDICATOR There are three types of indicators used in this report: 1.Describes the CONDITION of important elements of a system; 2.Show the extent of the major PRESSURES exerted on a system; 3.Determine RESPONSES to either condition or changes in the condition of a system. This indicator is one of: CONDITION RATIONALE FOR INDICATOR SELECTION Global climate models show warming in response to increased greenhouse gas (carbon dioxide, methane etc) concentrations in the atmosphere; this is called the 'enhanced greenhouse effect'. There is interest in climate variability and change not just at the surface, but extending up into the atmosphere. There is evidence of warming in the lower troposphere, but cooling in the lower stratosphere. Ozone depletion processes are also closely linked to stratospheric temperatures. DESIGN AND STRATEGY FOR INDICATOR MONITORING PROGRAM Spatial Scale: Australian Antarctic stations: Casey (lat 66 degrees 16' 54.5" S, long 110 degrees 31' 39.4" E), Davis (lat 68 degrees 34' 35.8" S, long 77 degrees 58' 02.6" E), Mawson (lat 67 degrees 36' 09.7" S, long 62 degrees 52' 25.7" E) and Macquarie Island (lat 54 degrees 37' 59.9" S, long 158 degrees 52' 59.9" E). Temporal scale: Monthly. Measurement technique: Radiosonde. RESEARCH ISSUES There is need to develop a high-quality data set from the available data, correcting erroneous data and estimating missing data. Adjustment may be necessary for changes in instrumentation or observing practices. Some of these changes are documented in the station history files held by the Regional Observations Section. These history files are currently held as paper records, although more recent information is held electronically and there is an effort to digitise the older records. Before the data can be used for the detection of change, a concerted effort will need to be made to identify deficiencies in the data, and then make compensations where possible. This is made more difficult by the lack of suitable comparison sites. Over recent years satellite data exist, which could be used in conjunction with radiosonde data. Satellite data and radiosonde data from other nations should lead to a greater coverage. LINKS TO OTHER INDICATORS SOE Indicators 1 - Monthly mean air temperatures for Australian Antarctic Stations SOE Indicators 2 - Monthly highest air temperatures for Australian Antarctic Stations SOE Indicators 3 - Monthly lowest air temperatures for Australian Antarctic Stations SOE Indicators 5 - Monthly mean mid-tropospheric temperature above Australian Antarctic stations SOE Indicators 6 - Daily mean 10m Firn Temperatures at AWS sites in the AAT (deg C) SOE Indicators 8 - Monthly mean of three-hourly mean sea level pressures (hPa) SOE Indicators 11 - Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gas species SOE Indicators 12 - Noctilucent cloud observations at Davis SOE Indicators 13 - Polar stratospheric cloud observations at Davis SOE Indicators 14 - Midwinter atmospheric temperature at altitude 87km SOE Indicators 16 - Extent of summer surface glacial melt (sq km) SOE Indicators 42 - Antarctic sea ice extent and concentration SOE Indicators 43 - Fast ice thickness at Davis and Mawson SOE Indicators 56 - Monthly fuel usage of the generator sets and boilers SOE Indicators 59 - Monthly electricity usage Note - Station codes in the data are as follows: 300000 - Davis 300001 - Mawson 300004 - Macquarie Island 300017 - Casey The fields in this dataset are: Mean 100hPa Temperature Year Month Station Station Code Value Enough Observations Number Observations
Purpose:
Not Available
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: French, J., Burns, G., Greet, P. and French, K. 2000 Antarctic Noctilucent Clouds: The Upper Atmosphere Exposed to View. The Physicist 37 3 85-90
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19480401
Ending_Date: Unknown
Currentness_Reference:Unknown
Status:
Progress: In Work
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: 61.0
East_Bounding_Coordinate: 159.0
North_Bounding_Coordinate: -54.0
South_Bounding_Coordinate: -69.0
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD SCIENCE PARAMETERS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD PLATFORM
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD INSTRUMENT
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ANCILLARY KEYWORDS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO TOPIC CATEGORY
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: DATA SET LANGUAGE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE > AIR TEMPERATURE
Theme_Keyword: WEATHER STATIONS
Theme_Keyword: TEMPERATURE SENSORS
Theme_Keyword: RAWINSONDES
Theme_Keyword: Enough Observations
Theme_Keyword: Mean
Theme_Keyword: Mean 100hpa Temperature
Theme_Keyword: Month
Theme_Keyword: Number Observations
Theme_Keyword: Station
Theme_Keyword: Temperature
Theme_Keyword: Upper
Theme_Keyword: Value
Theme_Keyword: Year
Theme_Keyword: CLIMATOLOGY/METEOROLOGY/ATMOSPHERE
Theme_Keyword: ENGLISH
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD
Place_Keyword: OCEAN > SOUTHERN OCEAN
Place_Keyword: OCEAN > SOUTHERN OCEAN > MACQUARIE ISLAND
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > CASEY
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > DAVIS
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > MAWSON
Place_Keyword: GEOGRAPHIC REGION > POLAR
Place_Keyword: VERTICAL LOCATION > STRATOSPHERE
Temporal:
Temporal_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD
Temporal_Keyword: Monthly
Access_Constraints: Data arising from this project are available from the state of the environment indicator URL given below.
Use_Constraints:
This data set conforms to the PICCCBY Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/). Please follow instructions listed in the citation reference provided at http://data.aad.gov.au/aadc/metadata/citation.cfm?entry_id=SOE_low_strato when using these data.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: CLIMATE SERVICES
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: REGIONAL OBSERVATIONS SECTION
Contact_Position: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Contact_Position: DATA CENTER CONTACT
Contact_Position: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Climate and Consultancy Section
Address: GPO Box 727
Address: Bureau of Meteorology
Address: Tasmania and Antarctica Regional Office
City: Hobart
State_or_Province: Tasmania
Postal_Code: 7001
Country: Australia
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Regional Observations Section
Address: GPO Box 727
Address: Bureau of Meteorology
Address: Tasmania and Antarctica Regional Office
City: Hobart
State_or_Province: Tasmania
Postal_Code: 7001
Country: Australia
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +61 3 6221 2043
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +61 3 6221 2071
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +61 3 6221 2045
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (via) +61 3 6221 2045
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: climate.tas@bom.gov.au
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: climate.tas@bom.gov.au
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Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
Monthly mean lower stratospheric temperatures are calculated from daily observations of temperature at the 100hPa level. Observations are restricted to within a few hours of 0000UTC to avoid biases and to allow comparison with limited historical data. If less than 25 daily observations are available for a given month, the monthly data are flagged and removed from the State of Environment dataset. The monthly lower stratospheric air temperature anomaly is calculated as the difference between the mean lower stratospheric air temperature for a given month and the long-term mean lower stratospheric air temperature for that calendar month between 1971 and 2000, so that: Anomaly (for given month) = Value (for given month) - Long-term Mean (for relevant calendar month) Although the Bureau of Meteorology uses the period from 1961 to 1990 as the standard period for calculation of long-term means, it was decided that for Antarctic stations, the 1971-2000 dataset was in most cases more complete, and would therefore provide a more accurate long-term mean. These records require analysis for variability and trends. However, there are likely to be significant errors in the data, and these need to be addressed first (see Research Issues). The data are subject to a number of quality checks, although these will not prevent errors: - The radiosonde checks the reasonableness of raw values from the probes whilst converting to temperature. - The receiving station applies reasonableness checks, generally with the involvement of a human observer.
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Not Available
Completeness_Report:
Not Available
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Not Available
Process_Date: Unknown
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Spatial_Reference_Information:
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Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: AU/AADC > Australian Antarctic Data Centre, Australia
Contact_Person: DATA OFFICER AADC
Contact_Position: DATA CENTER CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Australian Antarctic Division
Address: 203 Channel Highway
City: Kingston
State_or_Province: Tasmania
Postal_Code: 7050
Country: Australia
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +61 3 6232 3244
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +61 3 6232 3351
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: metadata@aad.gov.au
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: AU/BOM > Bureau of Meteorology, Australia
Contact_Person: CLIMATE SERVICES
Contact_Position: DATA CENTER CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Climate and Consultancy Section
Address: GPO Box 727
Address: Bureau of Meteorology
Address: Tasmania and Antarctica Regional Office
City: Hobart
State_or_Province: Tasmania
Postal_Code: 7001
Country: Australia
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +61 3 6221 2043
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +61 3 6221 2045
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: climate.tas@bom.gov.au
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: AU/BOM/TARO > Tasmanian-Antarctica Regional Office, Bureau of Meteorology, Australia
Contact_Person: CLIMATE SERVICES
Contact_Position: DATA CENTER CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Climate and Consultancy Section
Address: GPO Box 727
Address: Bureau of Meteorology
Address: Tasmania and Antarctica Regional Office
City: Hobart
State_or_Province: Tasmania
Postal_Code: 7001
Country: Australia
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +61 3 6221 2043
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +61 3 6221 2045
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: climate.tas@bom.gov.au
Resource_Description: SOE_low_strato
Distribution_Liability:
Not Available
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://data.aad.gov.au
Access_Instructions:
DATA CENTER URL
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://www.bom.gov.au/
Access_Instructions:
DATA CENTER URL
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://www.bom.gov.au/weather/tas/
Access_Instructions:
DATA CENTER URL
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://data.aad.gov.au/aadc/soe/display_indicator....
Access_Instructions:
Display Antarctic State of Environment Indicator 4
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://data.aad.gov.au/aadc/portal/download_file.c...
Access_Instructions:
Download page for Australian Antarctic Data Centre
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://data.aad.gov.au/aadc/metadata/citation.cfm?...
Access_Instructions:
Citation reference for this metadata record and dataset
Fees: Free
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Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20010424
Metadata_Review_Date: 20140912
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: IAN BARNES-KEOGAHN
Contact_Position: INVESTIGATOR
Contact_Position: DIF AUTHOR
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Climate and Consultancy Section
Address: GPO Box 727
Address: Bureau of Meteorology
Address: Tasmania and Antarctica Regional Office
City: Hobart
State_or_Province: Tasmania
Postal_Code: 7001
Country: Australia
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +61 3 6221 2043
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +61 3 6221 2045
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: I.Barnes-Keogahn@bom.gov.au
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: local time
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