Reproductive strategies of Antarctic penguins.1996-97.

Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Unknown
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title: Reproductive strategies of Antarctic penguins.1996-97.
Description:
Abstract:
In English: This dataset contains information on:During the Antarctic summer 1996-1997 we studied severas aspects of the breeding biology of the Chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica) in the large colony of Vapour Col on Deception Island, South Shetland (63d S, 60d40^? W). First, we studied the factors determining stone collecting behaviour during the incubation phase. Penguins relieved from incubation duties spend a certain time collecting stones or stealing them from neighboring nests and adding them to their own nests. This behaviour has a significant effect on the size of the nest, which in turn affects the risk of flooding after snow storms. We wanted to test if the intensity of stone collecting behaviour is determined by the present size of the nest. To that end, we removed half of the stones in certain nests at the beginning of the study and compared the change in nest weight during a period of two weeks with nests which were just weighed without being changed in size. Parents with experimentally reduced nests added more stones to their nests than parents of control nests. This result confirms that stone-collecting has as its function to increase nest size and thus reduce the risk of flooding.In another study, we tested if breeding date is associated to parental condition, birds in worse condition and with impaired immune response breeding later. To this end, we took blood samples of parents soon after hatching of their chicks and after 45 days, thus looking at changes in condition throughout the nestling period. The following parameters of blood were measured: haematocrit, sedimentation rate, height of buffy coat layer (white blood cells) and relative amount of different types of white blood cells (blood smears). To measure cell-mediated immune function we measured the in vivo hypersensitivity response to an intradermal injection of phytohemagglutinin in one of the interdigital webs. Early parents had smaller buffy coat layers in blood and a stronger immune response than late parents soon after hatching, suggesting that early breeders had a better health state than late breeders. Failed breeders had significantly smaller buffy coat layers than early breeders but very similar to late breeders. Parents had significantly lower haematocrits and greater buffy coat layers at the end of the nestling period than at the beginning, showing that health state deteriorates throughout the nestling period. No difference between early and late breeders was detected at the end of the nestling period, suggesting that nutritional condition and health state deteriorates more for early than for late breeders. In another study, we related the mass of food carried by parents in their stomachs to feed their chicks during the creche phase, obtained through weighings before and after feeding, with breeding date, sex, number of chicks and body size. Only body size had a significant effect on feed weight, suggesting an advantage of large body size which allows maximization of food carried per visit. Finally, we compared the flipper lengths (indicative of body size) of a large sample of newly independent chicks and of fresh carcasses appearing in large numbers on beaches soon after fledging in the colonies. Carcasses had significantly shorter flippers than the sample of newly independent chicks, showing that undersized chicks do not survive the first days at sea. There is a strong selection favouring the largest chicks. En Espanol: Esta ficha contiene informacion sobre: Durante el verano antartico 1996-1997 estudiamos distintos aspectos de la biologia reproductiva del Pinguino Barbijo (Pygoscelis antarctica) en la extensa colonia de Vapour Col en la isla Decepcion, Islas Shetland del Sur (63 degree S, 60 degrees 40^? W). Primeramente, estudiamos los factores determinantes del comportamiento en la recoleccion de piedras durante la fase de incubacion. Los pinguinos liberados de las labores de incubacion pasaban un cierto tiempo recolectando piedras o robandolas de los nidos cercanos y anadiendolas a sus propios nidos. Este comportamiento tiene un efecto significativo en el tamano del nido, el cual puede volverse vulnerable a las inundaciones tras las tormentas de nieve. Quisimos probar si la intensidad en la recoleccion de piedras esta determinada por el tamano del nido. Para ese fin, quitamos la mitad de las piedras en algunos nidos al principio del estudio y comparamos el cambio en el peso del nido en un periodo de dos semanas con nidos cuyo peso no habia sido modificado. Los padres de nidos experimentalmente reducios anadieron mas piedras a sus nidos que los padres de nidos controlados. Este resultado confirma que la recoleccion de piedras tiene como funcion el incremento del tamano del nido y como consecuencia la reduccion del riesgo de inundacion.En otro estudio, probamos si la fecha de reproduccion esta asociada a la condicion de los padres, los pajaros en peores condiciones y con respuestas inmunes danadas se reproducian mas tarde. Para este fin, tomamos muestras de sangre a los padres poco despues de la eclosion de los pollos y cuando estos tenian 45 dias, de este modo se ve?an los cambios en las condiciones a traves del periodo de anidamiento. Fueron medidos los siguientes parametros en sangre: hematocritos, tasa de sedimentacion, leucocitos y cantidades relativas de distintos tipos de leucocitos. Para medir las celulas del sistema inmunologico se midio en vivo la respuesta a la hipersensibilidad mediante una inyeccion intradermica de fitohemaglutina en uno de los tejidos interdigitales. Los padres tempranos tenian menos leucocitos en sangre y una respuesta inmunologica mas fuerte que los padres tardios poco despues de la eclosion, sugiriendo que los reproductores tempranos tenian un mejor estado de salud que los tardios. Los reproductores fallidos tenian significativamente un menor numero de leucocitos que los tempranos pero similar a los tardios. Los padres tenian significativamente menor numero de hematocritod y mas leucocitos al final del periodo de anidamiento que al principio mostrando que el estado de salud se deteriora a traves del periodo de anidamiento, sugiriendo que la condicion nutricional y el estado de salud se deteriora mas en reproductores tempranos que tardios. En otro estudio, relacionamos la cantidad de comida llevada por los padres en el estomago para alimentar a sus crias durante la fase de guarderia, obteniendo a traves de pesados antes y despues de la alimentacion, con fechas de reproduccion, sexo, numero de pollos y talla del cuerpo. Solo la talla del cuerpo tenia un efecto significativo en el peso del alimento, sugiriendo una ventaja en aquellos de cuerpos grandes ya que permite un mayor transporte de alimento en cada visita. Finalmente, comparamos el largo de las aletas (indicativo del tamano del cuerpo) de una amplia muestra de pollos recientemente independientes y los cadaveres frescos aparecidos en un gran numero de playas poco despues del nacimiento en las colonias. Los cadaveres tenian unas aletas significativamente mas cortas que las de las muestras de pollos recientemente independientes, mostrando que los pollos por debajo de la talla no sobreviven al primer dia en el mar. Esta es una fuerte selecci?n a favor de los pollos mas grandes.
Purpose:
Not Available
Supplemental_Information:
Not Available
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19951210
Ending_Date: 19960228
Currentness_Reference:Unknown
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -60.0
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -60.0
North_Bounding_Coordinate: -63.0
South_Bounding_Coordinate: -63.0
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD SCIENCE PARAMETERS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD PLATFORM
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD INSTRUMENT
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ANCILLARY KEYWORDS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO TOPIC CATEGORY
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > ANIMAL SCIENCE > ANIMAL BREEDING AND GENETICS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > ANIMAL SCIENCE > ANIMAL ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > ANIMALS/VERTEBRATES > BIRDS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS > SPECIES/POPULATION INTERACTIONS > SPECIES COMPETITION
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS > SPECIES/POPULATION INTERACTIONS > SPECIES PREDATION
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS > SPECIES/POPULATION INTERACTIONS > EVOLUTIONARY ADAPTATION
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS > SPECIES/POPULATION INTERACTIONS > POST-BREEDING PERIODS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS > SPECIES/POPULATION INTERACTIONS > SURVIVAL RATES
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS > ECOSYSTEM FUNCTIONS > TROPHIC DYNAMICS
Theme_Keyword: OBSERVATORIES
Theme_Keyword: VISUAL OBSERVATIONS
Theme_Keyword: Breeding Biology
Theme_Keyword: Behavioral Ecology
Theme_Keyword: Chinstrap Penguin
Theme_Keyword: Nest Maintenance
Theme_Keyword: Inmune Response
Theme_Keyword: Health State
Theme_Keyword: Parental Investment
Theme_Keyword: Body Size
Theme_Keyword: FARMING
Theme_Keyword: BIOTA
Theme_Keyword: OCEANS
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > ANTARCTIC PENINSULA > SCOTIA SEA > SOUTH SHETLAND ISLANDS > DECEPTION ISLAND
Place_Keyword: GEOGRAPHIC REGION > POLAR
Access_Constraints: Not Available
Use_Constraints:
Not Available
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: JUAN MORENO KLEMMING
Contact_Position: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Contact_Position: INVESTIGATOR
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales
Address: C/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal
City: Madrid
Postal_Code: 228006
Country: SPAIN
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +34 914111328
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +34 915646078
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: jmoreno@mncn.csic.es
Back to Top
Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
Not Available
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Not Available
Completeness_Report:
Not Available
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Not Available
Process_Date: Unknown
Back to Top
Spatial_Reference_Information:
Back to Top
Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: ES/CSIC/MNCN > Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Espana
Contact_Person: JUAN MORENO KLEMMING
Contact_Position: DATA CENTER CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales
Address: C/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal
City: Madrid
Postal_Code: 228006
Country: SPAIN
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +34 914111328
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +34 915646078
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: jmoreno@mncn.csic.es
Resource_Description: Pagina Institucional
Distribution_Liability:
Not Available
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: ASCII;BINARY
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://www.mncn.csic.es
Access_Instructions:
DATA CENTER URL
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Fees: Not Available
Back to Top
Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20030901
Metadata_Review_Date: 20030924
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: ANTONIO BARRAGAN SANABRIA
Contact_Position: DIF AUTHOR
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Centro Nacional de Datos Antarticos
Address: Instituto Geologico y Minero de Espana
Address: c/Rios Rosas 23
City: Madrid
Postal_Code: 28003
Country: SPAIN
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +34913495731
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +34913495929
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: a.barragan@igme.es
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: local time
Back to Top
[ Update this Record ]


Link to Web Site