Use of Sulfur and Nitrogen Stable Isotopes to Determine the Importance of Whitebark Pine Nuts to Yellowstone Grizzly Bears

Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Laura A. Felicetti, Charles C. Schwartz, Robert O. Rye, Mark A. Haroldson, Kerry A. Gunther, Donald L. Phillips and Charles T. Robbins
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title: Use of Sulfur and Nitrogen Stable Isotopes to Determine the Importance of Whitebark Pine Nuts to Yellowstone Grizzly Bears
Edition:
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form:
Series_Information:
Series_Name:
Issue_Identification:
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Bozeman, Montana
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey, Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center
Other_Citation_Details:
Online_Linkage:
Description:
Abstract:
Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is a masting species that produces relatively large, fat- and protein-rich nuts that are consumed by grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Trees produce abundant nut crops in some years and poor crops in other years. Grizzly bear survivial in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem is strongly linked to variation in pine-nut availability. Because whitebark pine trees are infected with blister rust (Cronartium ribicola), an exotic fungus that has killed the species throughout much of its range in the northern Rocky Mountains, we used stable isotopes to quantify the importance of this food resource to Yellowstone grizzly bears while healthy populations of the trees still exist. Whitebark pine nuts have a sulfur-isotope signature that is distinctly different from those of all other grizzly bear foods. Feeding trials with captive grizzly bears were used to develop relationships between dietary sulfur-, carbon-, and nitrogen-isotope signatures and those of bear plasma. The sulfur and nitrogen relationships were used to estimate the importance of pine nuts to free-rangin grizzly bears from blood and hair samples collected between 1994 and 2001. During years of abundant cone availability, approximately 8+ or - 10% of the bears made minimal use of pine nuts, while 67 + or - 19% derived over 51% of their assimilated sulfur and nitrogen (i.e., protein) from pine nuts. Pine nuts and meat are two critically important food resources for Yellowstone grizzly bears. The GYE includes Yellowstone and Grand Teton national parks and adjacent federal, state, and private lands in portions of Montana, Wyoming, and Idaho. The GYE contains the headwaters of three major continental-scale river systems: the Missouri and the Mississippi, Snake and Columbia, and Green and Colorado. Major plant and animal foods consumed by grizzly bears (Mattson et al., 1991) were collected through the GYE to determine if whitebark pine nuts have a unique isotopic signature relative to other foods. Plant samples were collected at sites used by radio-collared grizzly bears and included whitebark pine nuts; the foliage of clover (Trifolium spp.), horsetails (Equisetum arvense), elk thistle (Cirsium scariosum), cow parsnip (Heracleum lanatum), dandelion (Taraxacum spp.) , spring beauty (Claytonia lanceolata), sedges (Carex raynoldsii and C. Praticola), and grasses (Bromus anomolous), Phleum alpinum, Agropyron caninum, Poa spp. And Festuca idahoensis); and the bulbs or roots of onion grass (Melica spectabilis) , biscuitroot (Lomatium spp.), and yampa (Perideridia gairdneri) . Fleshy fruits or berries are not significant grizzly bear foods in the GYE and therefore were not collected (Mealey 1975; Kendall 1983; Mattson et al 1991). Collected animal matter included army cutworm moths (Euxoa auxiliaris) at alpine aggregation sites, cutthroat trout (Onchorhyncus clarki) in spawning streams around Yellowstone Lake, and bison (Bison bison), elk (Cervus elaphus) , and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus ) from throughout the park where they had been killed in collisions with cars.
Purpose:
Not Available
Supplemental_Information:
Not Available
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19940101
Ending_Date: 20011231
Currentness_Reference:Unknown
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -118.0
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -105.0
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 49.0
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 42.0
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD SCIENCE PARAMETERS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ANCILLARY KEYWORDS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO TOPIC CATEGORY
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: DATA SET LANGUAGE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > NITROGEN
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > SOILS > SULFUR
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > WATER QUALITY/WATER CHEMISTRY > STABLE ISOTOPES
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > NITROGEN
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > SOILS > SULFUR
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > PALEOCLIMATE > LAND RECORDS > ISOTOPES
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > GEOCHEMISTRY > GEOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES > ISOTOPES
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > ANIMALS/VERTEBRATES > MAMMALS > CARNIVORES > BEARS > GRIZZLY BEAR
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > PLANTS > DICOTS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > PLANTS > ALGAE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > PLANTS > GYMNOSPERMS > CONIFERS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > PLANTS > FERNS AND ALLIES > HORSETAILS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > PLANTS > ANGIOSPERMS (FLOWERING PLANTS) > MONOCOTS
Theme_Keyword: Nitrogen Stable Isotopes
Theme_Keyword: Sulfur Stable Isotopes
Theme_Keyword: Yellowstone
Theme_Keyword: Montana
Theme_Keyword: Wyoming
Theme_Keyword: Idaho
Theme_Keyword: Animalia
Theme_Keyword: Chordata
Theme_Keyword: Vertebrata
Theme_Keyword: Mammalia
Theme_Keyword: Theria
Theme_Keyword: Eutheria
Theme_Keyword: Carnivora
Theme_Keyword: Caniformia
Theme_Keyword: Ursidae
Theme_Keyword: Ursinae
Theme_Keyword: BIOTA
Theme_Keyword: ENGLISH
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > IDAHO
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > MONTANA
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > WYOMING
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
None
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: CHARLES C. SCHULTZ
Contact_Position: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
City: Bozeman
State_or_Province: Montana
Postal_Code: 59717
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 406-994-5043
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 406-994-6416
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: chuck_schwartz@usgs.gov
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Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
Grizzly bear samples were collected between 1994 and 2001.
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Not Available
Completeness_Report:
Not Available
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Not Available
Process_Date: Unknown
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Spatial_Reference_Information:
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Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: DOI/USGS/NRMSC > Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior
Contact_Person: CHARLES SCHWARTZ
Contact_Position: DATA CENTER CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: U.S. Geological Survey
City: Bozeman
State_or_Province: Montana
Postal_Code: 59717
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 406 994-5043
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 406 994-6416
Resource_Description: NRMSC_sulfurnitrogenstableisotopes
Distribution_Liability:
Not Available
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: Not Available
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://www.nrmsc.usgs.gov/
Access_Instructions:
DATA CENTER URL
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://mercury.ornl.gov/clearinghouse/send/xsltTex...
Access_Instructions:
Metadata in Biological Data Profile format.
Fees: Not Available
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Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20061229
Metadata_Review_Date: 20121212
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: TYLER B. STEVENS
Contact_Position: DIF AUTHOR
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Address: Global Change Master Directory
City: Greenbelt
State_or_Province: MD
Postal_Code: 20771
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (301) 614-6898
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 301-614-5268
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: Tyler.B.Stevens@nasa.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: local time
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