Investigation of the Distribution of Organochlorine and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Compounds in the Lower Columbia River

Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Kathleen A. McCarthy and Robert W. Gale
Publication_Date: unknown
Title: Investigation of the Distribution of Organochlorine and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Compounds in the Lower Columbia River
Edition:
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: database
Series_Information:
Series_Name:
Issue_Identification:
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Portland, Oregon
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details:
Online_Linkage:
Description:
Abstract:
Organochlorine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds are of concern in the Columbia River Basin because of their adverse effects on fish and wildlife. Because these compounds can have important biological consequences at concentrations well below the detection limits associated with conventional water-sampling techniques, we used semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to sample water, and achieved sub-parts-per- quintillion detection limits. We deployed SPMDs during 1997 low-flow conditions and 1998 high-flow conditions at nine main-stem sites and seven tributary sites, spanning approximately 700 miles of the Columbia River. We also collected streambed sediment from three sites. SPMD extracts and sediments were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and related transformation products, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Our data indicate that (1) in the absence of additional sources, mechanisms such as volatilization, dilution, and settling of sus pended particles can act to significantly reduce concentrations of contaminants along the river's flow path, (2) elevated concentrations of contaminants in the Portland-Vancouver area are primarily from local rather than upstream sources, (3) elevated concentrations of many compounds tend to be diluted during periods of high discharge, (4) much higher discharge in the main stem considerably dilutes elevated concentrations entering from tributaries, (5) the distribution of hydrophobic organic compounds in streambed sediment is not necessarily indicative of their distribution in the dissolved-phase, and (6) SPMDs can reveal patterns of contaminant occurrence at environmentally relevant concentrations that are undetectable by conventional water-sampling techniques. The purpose of the dataset was to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of hydrophobic organic compounds observed in the Columbia River system in order to provide insights into the sources and transport of these compounds. SPMDs were used to sample nine sites on the Columbia River main stem and seven tributary sites for PAH and OC compounds during low-flow conditions in the late summer and early fall of 1997, and again during high-flow conditions om 1998. High flows in the Columbia River main stem result primarily from snowmelt, and the 1998 sampling at most sites was conducted during late spring and early summer to capture peak discharges. In contrast, high flows in the Willamette subbasin result largely from winter rainfall, and therefore the 1998 sampling at the Willamette River and Johnson Creek sites was conducted during the winter. To help in the interpretation of SPMD data, water temperature was also monitored and water samples were collected for analyses of dissolved and suspended organic carbon. During the 1997 low-flow sampling period, streambed sediment was collected from three of the sites and analyzed for the full suite of OC and PAH compounds. SPMDs, mounted on deployment racks were shipped from the manufacturer in sealed 1 gallon metal cans and refrigerated until use. In the field, the mounted SPMDs were removed from the storage cans (by grasping the mounting rack rather than the SPMD), transferred into stainless steel deployment cannisters (which serve as protective shrouds), and placed in the stream. SPMDs were typically exposed to the atmosphere less than 15 minutes before being submerged in the river. Each cannister contained 5 SPMDs. Individual deployments consisted of either 1 or 3 cannisters (5 or 15 SPMDs per deployment), depending on the suite of compounds to be analyzed. Cannisters were secured at each site with anchors and, in some cases, a tether line attached to a fixed structure. Floats were used to ensure that the cannisters did not rest on the streambed. SPMDs were left in place for approximately 35 days. At the end of this 5-week deployment period, the mounted SPMDs were removed from the cannisters (by grasping the mounting rack rather than the SPMD), sealed in cans, and shipped on ice to the EST laboratory. Again, SPMDs were typically exposed to the atmosphere less than 15 minutes before being sealed in shipping containers. Grab samples for analyses of dissolved and suspended organic carbon were collected at selected sites during the deployment and retrieval of SPMDs. These samples were collected in baked glass bottles, sealed with aluminum-foil-lined caps, and stored on ice immediately following collection. The samples were filtered in the District Laboratoy within 24 hours, then shipped on ice to the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory in Denver, Colorado for analyses (Wershaw et al, 1987). To assure the quality of organic-carbon data, equipment blank samples were processed using organic-free water and analyzed along with the field samples. Duplicate samples were also collected, processed, and analyzed along with the primary environmental samples. Standard quality-control procedures were followed at the USGS NWQL. To assure the quality of organic-carbon data, equipment blank samples were processed using organic-free water and analyzed along with the field samples. Duplicate samples were also collected, processed, and analyzed along with the primary environmental samples. Standard quality-control procedures were followed at the USGS NWQL (Pirkey and Glodt, 1998). Hobo XT temperature loggers (Onset Instruments Corp.), Pocasset, Massachusetts) were deployed along with SPMDs at each site. The loggers recorded ambient water temperature at 48-minute intervals during the entire deployment period. Duplicate temperature loggers were deployed at selected sites during each deployment period. Water velocity at each site was visually estimated at the beginning and end of each period, and the degree of membrane fouling was estimated during processing in the laboratory. Streambed sediment samples were collected following procedures described by Shelton and Capel (1994). Samples were processed by wet sieving through a 63 micromillimeter stainless steel sieve with native water. The sediment samples were placed in 1 quart methanol-rinsed glass containers, and shipped on ice to CERC for analyses. At the CERC, sediment samples were air dried and homogenized, and sample aliquots for analyses of (1) PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs, (2) OC Pesticides and transformation products, and (3) PAHs were prepared with specific fractionation and enrichment processes (Gale and Orazio, 1998). Analyses were performed as described in the earlier section on SPMDs. Quality control samples processed with sediment samples included method replicates, procedural blanks, procedural spikes, and positive-control matrix samples for each class of analytes. Further details of the methods used are described by Gale and Orazio (1998). The information for this metadata was taken from the Online Publications of the Oregon District at http://oregon.usgs.gov/pubs_dir/online_list.html .
Purpose:
Not Available
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: McCarthy, K.A. And R. W. Gale, 1999, Investigation of the Distribution of Organochlorine and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Compounds in the Lower Columbia River Using Semipermeable Membrane Devices Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4051, Portland, Oregon U.S. Geological Survey http://oregon.usgs.gov/pubs_dir/Pdf/99-4051.pdf
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19970801
Ending_Date: 19980101
Currentness_Reference:Unknown
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -124.0
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -118.5
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 49.0
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 40.0
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD SCIENCE PARAMETERS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ANCILLARY KEYWORDS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO TOPIC CATEGORY
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: DATA SET LANGUAGE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS > PESTICIDES > ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > HUMAN DIMENSIONS > ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS > CONTAMINANT LEVELS/SPILLS > HYDROCARBONS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > HUMAN DIMENSIONS > ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS > CONTAMINANT LEVELS/SPILLS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > WATER QUALITY/WATER CHEMISTRY > CONTAMINANTS > HYDROCARBONS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > WATER QUALITY/WATER CHEMISTRY > CONTAMINANTS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > WATER QUALITY/WATER CHEMISTRY > HYDROCARBONS > POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > WATER QUALITY/WATER CHEMISTRY > HYDROCARBONS > ORGANOCHLORINE HYDROCARBONS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS > RIVERS/STREAM HABITAT > COLUMBIA RIVER MAINSTEM
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS > ECOTOXICOLOGY > SPECIES BIOACCUMULATION
Theme_Keyword: Organochlorine Compounds
Theme_Keyword: Ocs
Theme_Keyword: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Compounds
Theme_Keyword: Pahs
Theme_Keyword: Semipermeable Membrane Devices
Theme_Keyword: Spmds
Theme_Keyword: Lower Columbia River
Theme_Keyword: Columbia River Mainstem
Theme_Keyword: Biological Data Profile
Theme_Keyword: Bdp
Theme_Keyword: FARMING
Theme_Keyword: BIOTA
Theme_Keyword: ENVIRONMENT
Theme_Keyword: GEOSCIENTIFIC INFORMATION
Theme_Keyword: INLAND WATERS
Theme_Keyword: ENGLISH
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > OREGON
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
None
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: KATHLEEN A. MCCARTHY
Contact_Position: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: U.S. Geological Survey
Address: 10615 SE Cherry Blossom Drive
City: Portland
State_or_Province: Oregon
Postal_Code: 97216-3159
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (503) 251-3257
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: mccarthy@usgs.gov
Back to Top
Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
Field Quality Control-SPMDs were deployed in duplicate at selected locations to help quantify the overall precision of the sampling and analytical methods. At selected sites, field-blank SPMDs were exposed to the atmosphere during both deployment and retrieval to help quantify sample contamination resulting from handling and exposure to the atmosphere. Duplicate deployments and field blanks each consisted of the same number of SPMDs (5 or 15) as the associated primary deployment. All SPMD sets-primary deployments, duplicate deployments, and field blanks-were processed and analyzed using the same methods. For each class of compounds, analyte concentrations measured in field-blank SPMDs were generally much lower than those measured in deployed SPMDs, showing that handling and exposure to the atmosphere did not introduce significant contamination. In addition, for each deployment period, analyte concentrations were similar in all field-blank SPMDs. SPMD data from each river deployment were therefore corrected for atmospheric contamination, based on average concentrations of all field blanks exposed during that period. Results from duplicate field deployments indicate precision adequate for a reconnaissance-level study. With the exception of the 1997 duplicate deployment at the Northport site, results from most duplicate samples differed by less than a factor of two, and as expected, the greatest differences were in analytes present at concentrations near the detection limits. Laboratory Quality Control-Quality control samples processed with SPMD samples included procedural blanks and procedural spikes for each class of analytes. Procedural blanks were used to identify and quantify background contamination that occurred during sample preparation and analyses. Procedural spikes were used to monitor the overall efficiency of the sample preparation and analytical processes. Reported SPMD concentrations were corrected for surrogate recoveries (when applicable) and for procedural and field-blank backgrounds. Further details of the quality-control methods used at the analytical laboratories and the specific methods used for data correction are available in Gale and Orazio (1998) and from MRI.
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Not Available
Completeness_Report:
Not Available
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Not Available
Process_Date: Unknown
Back to Top
Spatial_Reference_Information:
Back to Top
Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: DOI/USGS/WRD/OR > Water Resource Division, Oregon, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior
Contact_Person: DENNIS D. LYNCH
Contact_Position: DATA CENTER CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: U.S. Geological Survey
Address: 10615 S.E. Cherry Blossom Drive
City: Portland
State_or_Province: Oregon
Postal_Code: 97216-3159
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (503) 251-3200
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (503) 251-3470
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: ddlynch@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: WRIR_99_4051
Distribution_Liability:
Not Available
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: Not Available
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://oregon.usgs.gov
Access_Instructions:
DATA CENTER URL
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://mercury.ornl.gov/clearinghouse/send/xsltTex...
Access_Instructions:
Metadata in National Biological Information Infrastructure format.
Fees: Not Available
Back to Top
Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20010627
Metadata_Review_Date: 20121212
Metadata_Future_Review_Date: 20020627
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: TYLER B. STEVENS
Contact_Position: DIF AUTHOR
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Address: Global Change Master Directory
City: Greenbelt
State_or_Province: MD
Postal_Code: 20771
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (301) 614-6898
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 301-614-5268
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: Tyler.B.Stevens@nasa.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: local time
Back to Top
[ Update this Record ]


Link to Web Site