Monthly mean atmospheric pressure for Australian Antarctic Stations

Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Unknown
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title: Monthly mean atmospheric pressure for Australian Antarctic Stations
Description:
Abstract:
INDICATOR DEFINITION Monthly means of three-hourly pressures, reduced to mean sea level, for Australian Antarctic stations Casey, Davis, Mawson, Macquarie Island and Heard Island. TYPE OF INDICATOR There are three types of indicators used in this report: 1.Describes the CONDITION of important elements of a system; 2.Show the extent of the major PRESSURES exerted on a system; 3.Determine RESPONSES to either condition or changes in the condition of a system. This indicator is one of: CONDITION RATIONALE FOR INDICATOR SELECTION Measurement of the pressure over Antarctica and the Southern Ocean is considered important for monitoring behaviour of pressure systems on a local and global scale, which will help to interpret global climate change. DESIGN AND STRATEGY FOR INDICATOR MONITORING PROGRAM Spatial Scale: Australian Antarctic stations: Casey (lat 66 degrees 16' 54.5" S, long 110 degrees 31' 39.4" E), Davis (lat 68 degrees 34' 35.8" S, long 77 degrees 58' 02.6" E), Mawson (lat 67 degrees 36' 09.7" S, long 62 degrees 52' 25.7" E), Macquarie Island (lat 54 degrees 37' 59.9" S, long 158 degrees 52' 59.9" E), Atlas Cove, Heard Island (lat 53 degrees 1' 8" S, long 73 degrees 23' 30" E) and Spit Bay, Heard Island (lat 53 degrees 6' 30" S, 73 degrees 43' 21" E). Frequency: Monthly. Measurement technique: Barometry. RESEARCH ISSUES There is need to develop a high-quality data set from the available data, correcting erroneous data and estimating missing data. Adjustment may be necessary for changes in site location or exposure, and for changes in instrumentation or observing practices. Some of these changes are documented in the station history files held by the Regional Observations Section. These history files are currently held as paper records, although more recent information is held electronically and there is an effort to digitise the older records. Before the data can be used for the detection of change, a concerted effort will need to be made to identify deficiencies in the data, and then make compensations where possible. This is made more difficult by the lack of suitable comparison sites. LINKS TO OTHER INDICATORS SOE Indicators 1 - Monthly mean air temperatures for Australian Antarctic Stations SOE Indicators 2 - Monthly highest temperatures for Australian Antarctic Stations SOE Indicators 3 - Monthly lowest temperatures for Australian Antarctic Stations SOE Indicators 4 - Monthly mean lower-stratospheric temperature above Australian Antarctic Stations SOE Indicators 5 - Monthly mean mid-tropospheric temperature above Australian Antarctic Stations SOE Indicators 38 - Mean sea level SOE Indicators 62 - Water levels of Deep Lake, Vestfold Hills Note - Station codes in the data are as follows: 300000 - Davis 300001 - Mawson 300004 - Macquarie Island 300005 - Atlas Cove, Heard Island 300017 - Casey 300028 - Spit Bay, Heard Island The fields in this dataset are: Mean MSL Pressure Year Month Station Station Code Field Value Enough Observations Number Observations
Purpose:
Not Available
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: CSIRO 2001 Climate Change Projections for Australia. Climate Impact Group Melbourne CSIRO Atmospheric Research 8
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: IAWG 2001 Climate Change Impacts for Australia. CSIRO Impacts and Adaptation Working Group. Aitkenvale CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems 8
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: White, W.B. and Peterson, R.G. 1996 An Antarctic Circumpolar Wave in Surface Pressure, Wind, Temperature and Sea-Ice Extent. Nature 380 699-702
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19480401
Ending_Date: Unknown
Currentness_Reference:Unknown
Status:
Progress: In Work
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: 61.0
East_Bounding_Coordinate: 159.0
North_Bounding_Coordinate: -54.0
South_Bounding_Coordinate: -69.0
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD SCIENCE PARAMETERS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD PLATFORM
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD INSTRUMENT
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ANCILLARY KEYWORDS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO TOPIC CATEGORY
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: DATA SET LANGUAGE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE > SEA LEVEL PRESSURE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE > SURFACE PRESSURE
Theme_Keyword: ARWS > AUTOMATIC REMOTE WEATHER STATION
Theme_Keyword: WEATHER STATIONS
Theme_Keyword: AWS > AUTOMATED WEATHER SYSTEM
Theme_Keyword: BAROMETERS
Theme_Keyword: ANEROID PRESSURE SENSOR
Theme_Keyword: Enough Observations
Theme_Keyword: Field
Theme_Keyword: Mean Msl Pressure
Theme_Keyword: Mean Sea Level
Theme_Keyword: Month
Theme_Keyword: Number Observations
Theme_Keyword: Pressure
Theme_Keyword: Station
Theme_Keyword: Station Level
Theme_Keyword: Surface
Theme_Keyword: Value
Theme_Keyword: Year
Theme_Keyword: CLIMATOLOGY/METEOROLOGY/ATMOSPHERE
Theme_Keyword: ENGLISH
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD
Place_Keyword: OCEAN > SOUTHERN OCEAN
Place_Keyword: OCEAN > SOUTHERN OCEAN > MACQUARIE ISLAND
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > CASEY
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > DAVIS
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > MAWSON
Place_Keyword: GEOGRAPHIC REGION > POLAR
Place_Keyword: VERTICAL LOCATION > BOUNDARY LAYER
Place_Keyword: OCEAN > SOUTHERN OCEAN > HEARD AND MCDONALD ISLANDS
Temporal:
Temporal_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD
Temporal_Keyword: Monthly
Access_Constraints: Data arising from this project are available from the state of the environment indicator URL given below.
Use_Constraints:
This data set conforms to the PICCCBY Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/). Please follow instructions listed in the citation reference provided at http://data.aad.gov.au/aadc/metadata/citation.cfm?entry_id=SOE_air_pressure when using these data.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: CLIMATE SERVICES
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: REGIONAL OBSERVATIONS SECTION
Contact_Position: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Contact_Position: DATA CENTER CONTACT
Contact_Position: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Climate and Consultancy Section
Address: GPO Box 727
Address: Bureau of Meteorology
Address: Tasmania and Antarctica Regional Office
City: Hobart
State_or_Province: Tasmania
Postal_Code: 7001
Country: Australia
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Regional Observations Section
Address: GPO Box 727
Address: Bureau of Meteorology
Address: Tasmania and Antarctica Regional Office
City: Hobart
State_or_Province: Tasmania
Postal_Code: 7001
Country: Australia
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +61 3 6221 2043
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +61 3 6221 2071
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +61 3 6221 2045
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (via) +61 3 6221 2045
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: climate.tas@bom.gov.au
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: climate.tas@bom.gov.au
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Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
Mean monthly atmospheric pressure is calculated from all the available 3-hourly observations made during a given month. Each three-hourly air pressure observation is 'reduced' to the equivalent value at mean sea level, using an algorithm embedded in the AWS. If less than 200 observations are present for that month, the monthly value is flagged and removed from the State of Environment dataset. The monthly atmospheric pressure anomaly is calculated as the difference between the mean atmospheric pressure for a given month and the long-term mean atmospheric pressure for that calendar month between 1971 and 2000, so that: Anomaly (for given month) = Value (for given month) - Long-term Mean (for relevant calendar month) Although the Bureau of Meteorology uses the period from 1961 to 1990 as the standard period for calculation of long-term means, it was decided that for Antarctic stations, the 1971-2000 dataset was in most cases more complete, and would therefore provide a more accurate long-term mean. These records require analysis for variability and trends. However, there are likely to be significant errors in the data, and these need to be addressed first (see Research Issues). With regard to Heard Island, unfortunately, the two AWS are not 'normal' ones (they are actually ocean drifting buoys that have been strapped down). They do provide temperature and pressure, but not wind or daily maximum and minimum temps. Also, they do not report to a fixed, regular schedule, instead sending when they are within the satellite footprint. The system set up for the other sites assumes the regular 3-hourly schedule. The irregularity of the Heard data could cause curious biases, which have not been explored. Also, the criteria used to flag that there are 'enough' data (greater than 200 obs in the month) may not really work with these more frequent, and irregular, reporting schedules. Heard Island (Atlas Cove) WMO number: 95997 Elevation: 3 m Barometer elevation: 3.5 m Heard Island (The Spit) WMO number: 94997 Elevation: 12 m Barometer elevation: 12.5 m
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Not Available
Completeness_Report:
Not Available
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Not Available
Process_Date: Unknown
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Spatial_Reference_Information:
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Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: AU/AADC > Australian Antarctic Data Centre, Australia
Contact_Person: DATA OFFICER AADC
Contact_Position: DATA CENTER CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Australian Antarctic Division
Address: 203 Channel Highway
City: Kingston
State_or_Province: Tasmania
Postal_Code: 7050
Country: Australia
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +61 3 6232 3244
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +61 3 6232 3351
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: metadata@aad.gov.au
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: AU/BOM > Bureau of Meteorology, Australia
Contact_Person: CLIMATE SERVICES
Contact_Position: DATA CENTER CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Climate and Consultancy Section
Address: GPO Box 727
Address: Bureau of Meteorology
Address: Tasmania and Antarctica Regional Office
City: Hobart
State_or_Province: Tasmania
Postal_Code: 7001
Country: Australia
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +61 3 6221 2043
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +61 3 6221 2045
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: climate.tas@bom.gov.au
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: AU/BOM/TARO > Tasmanian-Antarctica Regional Office, Bureau of Meteorology, Australia
Contact_Person: CLIMATE SERVICES
Contact_Position: DATA CENTER CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Climate and Consultancy Section
Address: GPO Box 727
Address: Bureau of Meteorology
Address: Tasmania and Antarctica Regional Office
City: Hobart
State_or_Province: Tasmania
Postal_Code: 7001
Country: Australia
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +61 3 6221 2043
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +61 3 6221 2045
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: climate.tas@bom.gov.au
Resource_Description: SOE_air_pressure
Distribution_Liability:
Not Available
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://data.aad.gov.au
Access_Instructions:
DATA CENTER URL
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://www.bom.gov.au/
Access_Instructions:
DATA CENTER URL
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://www.bom.gov.au/weather/tas/
Access_Instructions:
DATA CENTER URL
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://data.aad.gov.au/aadc/soe/display_indicator....
Access_Instructions:
Display Antarctic State of Environment Indicator 8
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://data.aad.gov.au/aadc/portal/download_file.c...
Access_Instructions:
Download page for Australian Antarctic Data Centre
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://data.aad.gov.au/aadc/metadata/citation.cfm?...
Access_Instructions:
Citation reference for this metadata record and dataset
Fees: Free
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Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20010426
Metadata_Review_Date: 20140912
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: IAN BARNES-KEOGAHN
Contact_Position: INVESTIGATOR
Contact_Position: DIF AUTHOR
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Climate and Consultancy Section
Address: GPO Box 727
Address: Bureau of Meteorology
Address: Tasmania and Antarctica Regional Office
City: Hobart
State_or_Province: Tasmania
Postal_Code: 7001
Country: Australia
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +61 3 6221 2043
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +61 3 6221 2045
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: I.Barnes-Keogahn@bom.gov.au
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: local time
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