Investigation of virus biodiversity in Antarctic terrestrial plants

Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Unknown
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title: Investigation of virus biodiversity in Antarctic terrestrial plants
Description:
Abstract:
Samples from Macquarie Island were collected between 1998 and 2004. Samples from Heard Island were collected during 2000. Continental samples were collected between 2004 and 2006. This project aims to confirm that viruses are the cause of disease symptoms observed in several plant species from Macquarie Island, and to characterise the viruses. These would be the first examples of terrestrial plant viruses found in Antarctica, and the southernmost plant viruses found. The results would be of fundamental biological significance, and will enable investigation of how plant viruses evolve in such an isolated location. The possibility of terrestrial plant viruses on Heard Island will also be investigated. A species from this project that has been entered into the Genbank database, a partial sequence of Stilbocarpa virus from Macquarie island - AF478691 (Genbank number). See also ASAC project 2152 (ASAC_2152). The fields in this dataset are: Species Date Latitude Longitude Collection Site Genbank Number Collection Number Internal Transcribed Spacers Comments Project objectives: The project objectives, as stated in the project application round 2008/09, appear below: This project has already enabled identification and characterisation of a new virus in Stilbocarpa polaris on Macquarie Island. This is the first example of a terrestrial plant virus found in Antarctica, and is of of fundamental biological significance. It is the southernmost plant virus known, and occurs on one of the most isolated and geologically recent islands. We have determined the complete genomic sequence of this virus, and have started to analyse the dispersal and origins of this virus. The main objectives of the next phase of this project are: 1. to further investigate the genetic variability, origins and evolution of the Stilbocarpa virus SMBV, and compare it with other badnaviruses to assess whether it has an extra gene compared with other viruses in the group 2. to analyse its means of transmission between Stilbocarpa plants and its dispersal around the island, and the extent of its effect on the host plants (such as significantly reduced seed set). 3. to analyse the effect of climate change, already happening on Macquarie Island, on SMBV and its host plants. 4. to analyse disease symptoms observed in several other subantarctic plant species, especially Cardamine corymbosa, to test whether these species are also virus-infected. Totally different virus-like particles have also been observed by electron microscopy in one sample of diseased leaves of Stilbocarpa polaris from Macquarie Island. These will be further characterised. 5. to investigate the biodiversity and dispersal of other plant pathogens such as fungi, and their consequences on plant health. A fungal pathogen of the moss Bryum argenteum from continental Antarctica has been identified, and two others will be characterised from mosses on Heard and Macquarie Islands. The further extension of this project will make use of specimens already collected on Heard and Macquarie Islands, to obtain as much information as possible about plant diseases in these remote locations, and their environmental adaptation to climate change. Taken from the 2008-2009 Progress Report: Progress against objectives: Good progress has been made with this project, in objectives where rabbit damage on Macquarie Island has not prevented progress. Analysis of DNA sequencing results for variants of the Stilbocarpa mosaic bacilliform virus has continued this year. Two papers are nearing completion on these results. It has proven difficult to analyse the means of transmission of the virus in Stilbocarpa at present, mainly due to rabbits completely eating plants at sites which were being monitored. However, this season we were able to sample some very young Stilbocarpa seedlings under plants difficult for rabbits to access, and this gives the possibility of testing for seed transmission of the virus. The potential new plant virus previously observed in Cardamine could not be followed up, as the area has been completely denuded of Cardamine plants by rabbits. An exclosure has been erected to attempt to germinate potentially infected seedlings in the area where diseased plants had been observed. Fungal infection of mosses colonising dead Poa foliosa tussocks was observed on Macquarie Island this year, and these colonies will be further examined. The results and publications are in line with the objectives of the project. Taken from the 2009-2010 Progress Report: Progress against objectives: Good progress has been made with this project, in objectives where rabbit damage on Macquarie Island has not prevented progress. Analysis of DNA sequencing results for variants of the Stilbocarpa mosaic bacilliform virus has continued this year. Two papers are nearing completion on these results. It has proven difficult to analyse the means of transmission of the virus in Stilbocarpa at present, mainly due to rabbits completely eating plants at sites which were being monitored. The potential new plant virus previously observed in Cardamine could not be followed up, as the area has been completely denuded of Cardamine plants by rabbits. An exclosure had been erected to attempt to germinate potentially infected seedlings in the area where diseased plants had been observed, but was removed this year as it had unfortunately been erected some 100m from the required site,and no infected Cardamine was growing inside the fencing. However, extensive searching in nearby locations this season has possibly revealed a new site for this potential virus, and samples will be analysed on their return to Australia in April. Fungal infection of mosses colonising dead Poa foliosa tussocks was again observed on Macquarie Island this year, and these colonies will be further examined. The results and publications are in line with the objectives of the project.
Purpose:
Not Available
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Bradner J.R., Sidhu R.K., Yee B., Skotnicki M.L., Selkirk P.M., Nevalainen K.M.H. 2000 A new microfungal isolate, Embellisia sp., associated with the Antarctic moss Bryum argenteum Polar Biology 23 730-732
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Skotnicki M.L., Selkirk P.M., McBride T.P., Shaw J., Kitajima E 2002 The first subantarctic plant virus report: Stilbocarpa mosaic bacilliform badnavirus (SMBV) from Macquarie Island Polar Biology 2006 1-7
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Frenot Y., Chown S.L., Whinam J., Selkirk M., Convey P., Skotnicki M., Bergstrom D. 2005 Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications. Biological Reviews 80 45-72
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Skotnicki M.L., Mackenzie A.M., Clements M.A., Selkirk P.M. 2005 DNA sequencing and genetic diversity of the 18S-26S nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacers (ITS) in nine Antarctic moss species Antarctic Science 17 3 377-384
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Skotnicki M.L., Mackenzie A., Selkirk P.M. 2004 Mosses surviving on the edge: Origins, genetic diversity, and mutation in Antarctica. Molecular Systematics of Bryophytes. Goffinet B., Hollowell V., Magill R Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 98 388-403
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Skotnicki M.L., Selkirk P.M. 2006 Plant biodiversity in an extreme environment: Genetic studies of origins, diversity and evolution in the Antarctic Bergstrom D.M., Convey P., Huiskes A.H.L. Trends in Antarctic Terrestrial and Limnetic Ecosystems: Antarctica as a Global Indicator 159-173
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Skotnicki M.L., Copson G.R., Doube J., Gadd L., Selkirk-Bell J.M., Selkirk P.M. 2009 Biology and population studies of two endemic Nematocera (orchid) species on sub-Antarctic Macquarie Island Papers Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 143 2 61-71
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19981101
Ending_Date: 19991231
Currentness_Reference:Unknown
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 20001001
Ending_Date: 20001130
Currentness_Reference:Unknown
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19991101
Ending_Date: 20040331
Currentness_Reference:Unknown
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 20060301
Ending_Date: 20060405
Currentness_Reference:Unknown
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 20070410
Ending_Date: 20070417
Currentness_Reference:Unknown
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 20080930
Ending_Date: 20090331
Currentness_Reference:Unknown
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 20091201
Ending_Date: 20100131
Currentness_Reference:Unknown
Status:
Progress: In Work
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: 158.8
East_Bounding_Coordinate: 158.9
North_Bounding_Coordinate: -54.6
South_Bounding_Coordinate: -54.7
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: 73.1
East_Bounding_Coordinate: 73.4
North_Bounding_Coordinate: -52.6
South_Bounding_Coordinate: -53.1
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: 110.48
East_Bounding_Coordinate: 110.55
North_Bounding_Coordinate: -66.27
South_Bounding_Coordinate: -66.29
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: 62.84
East_Bounding_Coordinate: 62.9
North_Bounding_Coordinate: -67.55
South_Bounding_Coordinate: -67.65
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: 77.91
East_Bounding_Coordinate: 77.99
North_Bounding_Coordinate: -68.54
South_Bounding_Coordinate: -68.61
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD SCIENCE PARAMETERS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD PLATFORM
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD INSTRUMENT
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ANCILLARY KEYWORDS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO TOPIC CATEGORY
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: DATA SET LANGUAGE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS > ALPINE/TUNDRA
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > VEGETATION > VEGETATION SPECIES
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > PLANTS > ALGAE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > PLANTS > MOSSES/HORNWORTS/LIVERWORTS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > FUNGI > LICHENS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > VIRUSES
Theme_Keyword: FIELD SURVEYS
Theme_Keyword: FIELD INVESTIGATION
Theme_Keyword: VISUAL OBSERVATIONS
Theme_Keyword: Bryophyte
Theme_Keyword: Date
Theme_Keyword: Genbank
Theme_Keyword: Heard Island
Theme_Keyword: Internal Transcribed Spacers
Theme_Keyword: Its
Theme_Keyword: Latitude
Theme_Keyword: Longitude
Theme_Keyword: Species
Theme_Keyword: Vegetation
Theme_Keyword: BIOTA
Theme_Keyword: ENGLISH
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD
Place_Keyword: OCEAN > SOUTHERN OCEAN
Place_Keyword: OCEAN > SOUTHERN OCEAN > MACQUARIE ISLAND
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > CASEY
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > DAVIS
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > MAWSON
Place_Keyword: GEOGRAPHIC REGION > POLAR
Place_Keyword: OCEAN > SOUTHERN OCEAN > HEARD AND MCDONALD ISLANDS
Access_Constraints: The data are available for download from the url given below.
Use_Constraints:
This data set conforms to the PICCCBY Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/). Please follow instructions listed in the citation reference at the provided URL when using these data.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: MARY SKOTNICKI
Contact_Position: INVESTIGATOR
Contact_Position: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Contact_Position: DIF AUTHOR
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Research School of Biological Sciences
Address: Australia National University
Address: PO Box 475
City: Canberra
State_or_Province: ACT
Postal_Code: 2601
Country: Australia
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +61 2 6257 0501
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: mary.skotnicki@anu.edu.au
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: skotnicki@actewagl.net.au
Back to Top
Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
The spatial quality of the dataset is poor. Site locations are poorly described, and would be difficult to replicate. Dates provided in temporal coverage (1999-2004) are approximate only. Taken from the 2008-2009 Progress Report: Field work: Fieldwork on Macquarie Island was very successful, during the short time available during resupply voyage 5. Dr M. Skotnicki revisted sites near Pyramd Peak, Green Gorge, Red River, Prion Lake, Bauer Bay, Island Lake, Scoble Lake and Razorback to reassess and rephotograph ecosystems, to collect specimens for genetic and viral/fungal disease analysis, and to monitor rabbit damage as part of a long-term analysis of vegetation responses in conjuction with plant disease and climate change. Fieldwork was in line with the aims and timeframe of the project. All samples were obtained in accordance with permit requirements, and impacts on the plants and their habitats were minimal and transitory. Laboratory activity/analysis: Less experimental labwork has been done his year than originally anticipated, due to lack of funding. However, overall progress has been good, with more fieldwork components to the project being productive. Difficulties affecting project: Progress with experimental work was temporarily slowed this year by the time spent on ensuring compliance with new AQIS regulations, and by the lack of funding for lab work. Rabbit damage - destruction of plants previously being monitored - is currently hampering progress with some objectives. However, once rabbits are eradicated, it will be much more feasible to assess whether regenerating plants and new seedlings are virus-infected - demonstrating whether or not virus infection is seed-transmitted. Taken from the 2009-2010 Progress Report: Field work: Fieldwork on Macquarie Island was successful during six weeks in summer from December 2009 - January 2010. Dr A. Skotnicki, accompanied by Mr M. Duering, visited sites near Waterfall Bay, Pyramid Peak, Green Gorge, Red River, Bauer Bay, Island Lake, Scoble Lake, Razorback to reassess and rephotograph ecosystems, to collect specimens for genetic and viral/fungal disease analysis, and to monitor rabbit damage as part of a long-term analysis of vegetation responses in conjunction with plant disease and climate change. Fieldwork was in line with the aims and timeframe of the project, and in accordance with permit requirements. Impacts on the plants and their habitats were minimal and transitory. Difficulties affecting project: Rabbit damage - destruction of plants previously being monitored - is currently hampering progress with some objectives. However, once rabbits are eradicated, it will be much more feasible to assess whether regenerating plants and new seedlings are virus-infected - demonstrating whether or not virus infection is seed-transmitted.
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Not Available
Completeness_Report:
Not Available
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Not Available
Process_Date: Unknown
Back to Top
Spatial_Reference_Information:
Back to Top
Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: AU/AADC > Australian Antarctic Data Centre, Australia
Contact_Person: DATA OFFICER AADC
Contact_Position: DATA CENTER CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Australian Antarctic Division
Address: 203 Channel Highway
City: Kingston
State_or_Province: Tasmania
Postal_Code: 7050
Country: Australia
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +61 3 6232 3244
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +61 3 6232 3351
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: metadata@aad.gov.au
Resource_Description: ASAC_2153
Distribution_Liability:
Not Available
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: excel
Transfer_Size: 80KB
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://data.aad.gov.au
Access_Instructions:
DATA CENTER URL
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://data.aad.gov.au/aadc/portal/download_file.c...
Access_Instructions:
Download point for the data
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
https://secure3.aad.gov.au/proms/public/projects/r...
Access_Instructions:
Public information for ASAC project 2153
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://data.aad.gov.au/aadc/metadata/citation.cfm?...
Access_Instructions:
Citation reference for this metadata record and dataset
Fees: Free
Back to Top
Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20000811
Metadata_Review_Date: 20140829
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: MARY SKOTNICKI
Contact_Position: INVESTIGATOR
Contact_Position: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Contact_Position: DIF AUTHOR
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Research School of Biological Sciences
Address: Australia National University
Address: PO Box 475
City: Canberra
State_or_Province: ACT
Postal_Code: 2601
Country: Australia
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +61 2 6257 0501
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: mary.skotnicki@anu.edu.au
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: skotnicki@actewagl.net.au
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: local time
Back to Top
[ Update this Record ]


Link to Web Site