Major Marine Ecological Disturbances, Morbidity, Mortality and Disease of Marine Wildlife Species Human Health and Economic Impacts

Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Unknown
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title: Major Marine Ecological Disturbances, Morbidity, Mortality and Disease of Marine Wildlife Species Human Health and Economic Impacts
Description:
Abstract:
The HEED (Health, Ecological and Economic Dimensions of) Global Change Program, a 3-year effort funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Office of Global Programs and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, has developed a systematic methodology for collecting morbidity and mortality occurrence data, across a range of species. A comprehensive survey of instances of marine ecological disturbance, and a methodology for future Major marine ecological disturbances (MMED) investigation, is desired by international, federal and state agencies in their efforts to better understand the changes occurring in the world's oceans. Our approach draws together the expertise of over 15 separate disciplines, organizes historic data in one standard format, assesses the integrity and coverage of data, and provides a method for future standardized data collection and analysis. Events within this morbidity and mortality database serve as (eco)indicators of ecologically and economically significant disturbances. The overall framework enables the assessment of marine ecosystem health. In our initial study area, which includes the Western North Atlantic, Caribbean Sea, and the Gulf of Mexico, recognized major marine ecological disturbances (MMEDs) have increased during the last 30 years. We have tracked those changes and are attempting to characterize patterns within our data-sets. The HEED Global Change Program provides researchers, interested in testing hypotheses, with six data-sets and a framework to explore factors (e.g., climate, pollution, trophodynamic shifts) that may be contributing to MMEDs. The methods that we have developed can be scaled up to the level of global assessment. The six datasets integrated for our Framework are: 1) MMED Database: Morbidity/mortality and adverse occurrences among coral, seagrasses, invertebrates, fish, sea turtles, shore birds, marine mammals, and humans, including Harmful Algal Bloom data. 2) Climate Databases: Sea-surface temperature anomalies, precipitation anomalies, unusual weather events, movement of the Gulf Stream, indices of climatological anomalies, including the NAO and El Nino phenomena. 3) Biophysical Databases: Dissolved inorganic and organic nutrients, river flux, metal concentrations, water column stratification, oxygen, salinity, solar radiation, presence/absence and abundance of indicator species. 4) Base-line Ecosystem Datasets: Chlorophyll biomass, plankton abundance and diversity, dynamics and life history for benthic and pelagic species, and their organization in trophodynamic guilds for particular places over time. 5) Economic Database: NMFS fisheries statistics, FEMA and SBA requests for assistance, and other economic and social costs of morbidity and mortality events. Case studies include Pfiesteria, Summer, 1997. 6) Mass-Media Database: Article searches of MMED-related stories and economic costs, to ensure complete coverage of data too recent to appear in published literature. Case studies include global marine mammal reports from 1997-98. Our data depicts a geographic expansion and overall increase in MMEDs, over the last several decades - including unprecedented events, and disturbances of increasing severity. These have had, in some cases, significant human health and economic impacts. Increased understanding of MMEDs, through the use of the tracking methodology described here, provides a justification and basis for a rapid response to public health risks and threats to ecosystems. For more information, see: "http://www.med.harvard.edu/chge/textbook/index.htm"
Purpose:
Not Available
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Epstein PR. Is Global Warming Harmful to Health? Scientific American; August 2000 Epstein PR. Climate and Health. Science 1999: 285: 347-348 Epstein PR, Dobson A, Vandermeer J. Biodiversity and Emerging Infectious Diseases: Integrating Health and Ecosystem Monitoring. In Biodiversity and Human Health. Grifo F, Rosenthal J (Eds.). Island Press. Washington DC 1997. Epstein PR, Ford TE, Colwell RR. Marine ecosystems. Lancet 1993; 342: 1216-1219. Epstein PR. Emerging diseases and ecosystem instability: New threats to public health. American Journal of Public Health 1994; 85: 168-172. Patz JA, Epstein PR, Burke TA, Balbus JM. Global climate change and emerging infectious diseases. Journal of the American Medical Association 1996; 275: 217-223. Haines A, Epstein PR, McMichael AJ, on behalf of an international panel. Global health watch: monitoring impacts of environmental change. Lancet 1993; 342: 1463-1469. For human health and global environmental change publications, see: "http://www.med.harvard.edu/chge/resources.html"
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19951110
Ending_Date: 19990606
Currentness_Reference:Unknown
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -102.0
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -28.0
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 56.0
South_Bounding_Coordinate: -4.0
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD SCIENCE PARAMETERS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ANCILLARY KEYWORDS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO TOPIC CATEGORY
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > AGRICULTURE > AGRICULTURAL AQUATIC SCIENCES > FISHERIES
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > PRECIPITATION > PRECIPITATION ANOMALIES
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION > SOLAR RADIATION
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > HUMAN DIMENSIONS > ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS > CONTAMINANT LEVELS/SPILLS > MARINE DISEASE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > HUMAN DIMENSIONS > ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS > HEAVY METALS CONCENTRATION
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > HUMAN DIMENSIONS > PUBLIC HEALTH > DISEASES/EPIDEMICS > HUMAN ILLNESS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > WATER QUALITY/WATER CHEMISTRY > CHLOROPHYLL
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > WATER QUALITY/WATER CHEMISTRY > DISSOLVED GASES
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > WATER QUALITY/WATER CHEMISTRY > INORGANIC MATTER
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > WATER QUALITY/WATER CHEMISTRY > OXYGEN
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > WATER QUALITY/WATER CHEMISTRY > TRACE METALS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN TEMPERATURE > SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE > SST ANOMALIES
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > HUMAN DIMENSIONS > ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE/MANAGEMENT > ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > AQUATIC SCIENCES > FISHERIES
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > CLIMATE INDICATORS > ATMOSPHERIC/OCEAN INDICATORS > TELECONNECTIONS > EL NINO SOUTHERN OSCILLATION (ENSO) > ENSO
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > CLIMATE INDICATORS > ATMOSPHERIC/OCEAN INDICATORS > TELECONNECTIONS > NORTH ATLANTIC OSCILLATION > NAO
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > ANIMALS/VERTEBRATES > FISH
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > ANIMALS/VERTEBRATES > MAMMALS > MAMMAL STRANDING
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > ANIMALS/VERTEBRATES > MAMMALS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > ANIMALS/INVERTEBRATES
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > PLANTS > ALGAE; HARMFUL ALGAE BLOOMS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS > PLANKTON > PHYTOPLANKTON
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS > PLANKTON
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > PIGMENTS > CHLOROPHYLL
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS > MARINE HABITAT
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS > SPECIES/POPULATION INTERACTIONS > SPECIES LIFE HISTORY
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS > COMMUNITY DYNAMICS > BIODIVERSITY FUNCTIONS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS > COMMUNITY DYNAMICS > INDICATOR SPECIES
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS > COMMUNITY DYNAMICS > INDICATOR SPECIES > REGIONAL INDICATOR SPECIES
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS > ECOTOXICOLOGY > TOXICITY LEVELS > SHELLFISH TOXICITY
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > HUMAN DIMENSIONS > PUBLIC HEALTH > MORBIDITY
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > HUMAN DIMENSIONS > POPULATION > MORTALITY
Theme_Keyword: Ecosystem Health
Theme_Keyword: Global Data On Anecdotal Basis
Theme_Keyword: Marine Ecological Disturbances
Theme_Keyword: Marine Mammal Stranding
Theme_Keyword: Marine Morbidity
Theme_Keyword: Marine Mortality
Theme_Keyword: FARMING
Theme_Keyword: BIOTA
Theme_Keyword: CLIMATOLOGY/METEOROLOGY/ATMOSPHERE
Theme_Keyword: ECONOMY
Theme_Keyword: ENVIRONMENT
Theme_Keyword: GEOSCIENTIFIC INFORMATION
Theme_Keyword: HEALTH
Theme_Keyword: INLAND WATERS
Theme_Keyword: OCEANS
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD
Place_Keyword: OCEAN > ATLANTIC OCEAN
Place_Keyword: OCEAN > ATLANTIC OCEAN > NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN
Place_Keyword: OCEAN > ATLANTIC OCEAN > NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN > CARIBBEAN SEA
Place_Keyword: OCEAN > ATLANTIC OCEAN > NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN > GULF OF MEXICO
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Access_Constraints: Not Available
Use_Constraints:
Not Available
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: PAUL R. EPSTEIN
Contact_Position: INVESTIGATOR
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Center for Health and the Global Environment
Address: Harvard Medical School
Address: 401 Park Drive, Second Floor
City: Boston
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02215
Country: USA
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: paul_epstein@hms.harvard.edu
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Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
Not Available
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Not Available
Completeness_Report:
Not Available
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Not Available
Process_Date: Unknown
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Spatial_Reference_Information:
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Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: HARVARD/HMS/CHGE > Center for Health and the Global Environment, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University
Contact_Person: CENTER FOR HEALTH AND THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT
Contact_Position: DATA CENTER CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Center for Health and the Global Environment
Address: Harvard Medical School
Address: 401 Park Drive, Second Floor
City: Boston
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02215
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 617-384-8530
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 617-384-8585
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: chge@hms.harvard.edu
Resource_Description: HEED_UNH
Distribution_Liability:
Not Available
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: Not Available
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://chge.med.harvard.edu/
Access_Instructions:
DATA CENTER URL
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://www.med.harvard.edu/chge/textbook/index.htm...
Access_Instructions:
Human health and global environmental change
Fees: Not Available
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Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20000324
Metadata_Review_Date: 20121108
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: GCMD User Support Office
Contact_Organization: NASA Global Change Master Directory
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Not Available
City: Lanham
State_or_Province: MD
Postal_Code: 20706
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: Not Available
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gcmduso@gcmd.gsfc.nasa.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: local time
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