The variability of the Southern Annular Mode and associations with high latitude weather and climate

Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Unknown
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title: The variability of the Southern Annular Mode and associations with high latitude weather and climate
Description:
Abstract:
Metadata record for data from ASAC Project 2540 See the link below for public details on this project. The hemispheric and regional atmospheric circulation influences the Southern Ocean in many and profound ways, including intense air-sea fluxes of momentum, energy, fresh water and dissolved gases. The Southern Ocean ventilates a large fraction of the world ocean and hence these influences are spread globally. We use the NCEP-2 reanalysis dataset to diagnose aspects of the large-scale atmospheric structure and variability and explore how these impact on the Southern Ocean. We discuss how the 'Southern Annular Mode' and the 'Pacific-South American' pattern influence the Southern Ocean, particularly in the Eastern Pacific. We review the importance of atmospheric eddies in Southern Ocean climate, and the role they play in transport of mechanical energy into the ocean. The fluxes of fresh water across the air-sea boundary influence strongly the processes of water mass formation. It is shown that climatological precipitation exceeds evaporation over most of the Southern Ocean. When averaged over the ocean from 50S to the Antarctic coast the annual mean excess is 0.8 mm per day. The magnitude of the flux displays only a small measure of seasonality, and it's largest value of 0.92 mm per day occurs in summer. In this project, the NCEP reanalysis datasets were sourced from: NOAA/National Weather Service, National Centers for Environmental Prediction (5200 Auth Road, Camp Springs, Maryland, 20746 USA). Two NCEP reanalysis data sets were used in this study. The first was NCEP/NCAR, with 6-hourly data available from 1958 (see the URL provided below for further information). The second was the NCEP/DOE set, with 6-hourly data available from 1979 (see the URL provided below for further information). The ERA-40 is a 're-analysis' of meteorological observations from September 1957 to August 2002 produced by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) in collaboration with many institutions. The HadISST1.1 data set was the first version of the global sea-ice and sea surface temperature dataset produced by the Hadley Centre at the United Kingdom Meteorological Office. In this project the following model/analysis was applied: Application of The University of Melbourne cyclone tracking scheme (Simmonds et al., 2003, Monthly Weather Review, 131, 272-288) and a broad range of statistical tests. Brief details are provided in the Summary. See the link for the pdf document for more detailed information. These complex statistical analyses were run over the entire length of the project (2004/05 - 2006/07). They were run on Dell PCs in the School of Earth Sciences, The University of Melbourne.
Purpose:
Not Available
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Simmonds, I., K. Keay and E.-P. Lim, 2003: Synoptic activity in the seas around Antarctica. Monthly Weather Review, 131, 272-288.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Uppala et al., 2005: The ERA-40 re-analysis. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 131, 2961-3012.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Rayner, N. A., D. E. Parker, P. Frich, E. B. Horton, C. K. Folland and L. V. Alexander, 2000: The HadISST1 Global Sea-Ice and Sea Surface Temperature Dataset, 1871-1999. Hadley Centre Technical Note 17, United Kingdom Meteorological Office. Rayner, N. A., P. Brohan, D. E. Parker, C. K. Folland, J. J. Kennedy, M. Vanicek, T. J. Ansell and S. F. B. Tett, 2006: Improved analyses of changes and uncertainties in sea surface temperature measured in situ since the mid-nineteenth century: The HadSST2 dataset. Journal of Climate, 19, 446-469.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 20041007
Ending_Date: Unknown
Currentness_Reference:Unknown
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -180.0
East_Bounding_Coordinate: 180.0
North_Bounding_Coordinate: -50.0
South_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.0
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD SCIENCE PARAMETERS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD PLATFORM
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO TOPIC CATEGORY
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: DATA SET LANGUAGE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > CLIMATE INDICATORS > ATMOSPHERIC/OCEAN INDICATORS > TELECONNECTIONS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > CRYOSPHERE > SEA ICE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > SEA ICE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > SEA ICE > SEA ICE AGE
Theme_Keyword: SATELLITES
Theme_Keyword: CLIMATOLOGY/METEOROLOGY/ATMOSPHERE
Theme_Keyword: ENGLISH
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD
Place_Keyword: OCEAN > SOUTHERN OCEAN
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA
Place_Keyword: GEOGRAPHIC REGION > POLAR
Access_Constraints: A pdf copy of the paper describing the model used is available for download from the URL given below. Links to the metadata records describing the original data sources are also available at the URLs given below.
Use_Constraints:
This data set conforms to the PICCCBY Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/). Please follow instructions listed in the citation reference provided at the URL below when using these data.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: IAN SIMMONDS
Contact_Position: INVESTIGATOR
Contact_Position: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Contact_Position: DIF AUTHOR
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: University of Melbourne
Address: School of Earth Sciences
City: PARKVILLE
State_or_Province: Victoria
Postal_Code: 3052
Country: Australia
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +61 3 9344 7216
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +61 3 9344 7761
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: simmonds@unimelb.edu.au
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Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
The Date provided in temporal coverage is approximate only. See the links for the source data for further information about the quality of the original datasets.
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Not Available
Completeness_Report:
Not Available
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Not Available
Process_Date: Unknown
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Spatial_Reference_Information:
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Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: AU/AADC > Australian Antarctic Data Centre, Australia
Contact_Person: DATA OFFICER AADC
Contact_Position: DATA CENTER CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Australian Antarctic Division
Address: 203 Channel Highway
City: Kingston
State_or_Province: Tasmania
Postal_Code: 7050
Country: Australia
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +61 3 6232 3244
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +61 3 6232 3351
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: metadata@aad.gov.au
Resource_Description: ASAC_2540
Distribution_Liability:
Not Available
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: pdf
Transfer_Size: 9.3 MB
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://data.aad.gov.au
Access_Instructions:
DATA CENTER URL
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://data.aad.gov.au/aadc/portal/download_file.c...
Access_Instructions:
Download point for the data - pdf document detailing the model used
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
https://secure3.aad.gov.au/proms/public/projects/r...
Access_Instructions:
Public information for ASAC project 2540
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://www.cdc.noaa.gov/cdc/reanalysis/reanalysis....
Access_Instructions:
NCEP/NCAR, with 6-hourly data available from 1958
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/wesley/reana...
Access_Instructions:
NCEP/DOE set, with 6-hourly data available from 1979
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://data.aad.gov.au/aadc/metadata/citation.cfm?...
Access_Instructions:
Citation reference for this metadata record and dataset
Fees: Free
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Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20050302
Metadata_Review_Date: 20140829
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: IAN SIMMONDS
Contact_Position: INVESTIGATOR
Contact_Position: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Contact_Position: DIF AUTHOR
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: University of Melbourne
Address: School of Earth Sciences
City: PARKVILLE
State_or_Province: Victoria
Postal_Code: 3052
Country: Australia
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +61 3 9344 7216
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +61 3 9344 7761
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: simmonds@unimelb.edu.au
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: local time
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