Recurring Spring Leads and Landfast Ice in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, 1993-2004

Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Eicken, H., L. Shapiro, A. G. Gaylord, A. Mahoney, and P. W. Cotter.
Publication_Date: 20090617
Title: Recurring Spring Leads and Landfast Ice in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, 1993-2004
Edition:
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form:
Series_Information:
Series_Name:
Issue_Identification:
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
Other_Citation_Details:
Online_Linkage: http://nsidc.org/data/G02173
Description:
Abstract:
In the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, the most significant sea ice anomalies have occurred in the summer ice extent (Eicken et al. 2006). In addition, there has been a considerable decline in the multiyear ice pack in this region (Eicken et al. 2006). To help understand these anomalies, this data set contains information on recurring spring leads and landfast ice extent in this area. This data set maps and documents the spatial and temporal distribution of recurring leads and landfast ice off the coast of northern Alaska in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas (Eicken et al. 2006). The leads data span from 1993 through 2004 and are based on visible and infrared Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data onboard the NOAA 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 satellites. The landfast ice extent data extend from 1996 through 2004 and are based on RADARSAT-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery. The data are available in a number of formats including ArcGIS geodatabases (.mdb), shapefiles (.shp), ArcGIS grids (.adf), ArcGIS grids in ArcInfo interchange format (.e00), and GeoTIFFs (.tif). Statistics are also provided in Microsoft Excel spreadsheets (.xls) and metadata in several formats including XML (.xml), SGML (.sgml), HTML (.html), and ASCII text (.txt). Quick-view browse images in JPEG (.jpg) format are provided for the shapefiles, grids, and GeoTIFFs. Data are available via FTP.
Purpose:
Not Available
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Eicken, H., L. Shapiro, A. G. Gaylord, A. Mahoney, and P. Cotter. 2006. Mapping and Characterization of Recurring Spring Leads and Landfast Ice in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas. Final Report, Minerals Management Service OCS Study MMS 2005-068. Eicken, H., R. Gradinger, A. Graves, A. Mahoney, I. Rigor, and H. Melling. 2005. Sediment Transport by Sea Ice in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas: Increasing Importance Due to Changing Ice Conditions? Deep-Sea Research II 52: 3281-3302. Fett, R. W., R. E. Englebretson, and S. D. Burk. 1997. Technologies for Analyzing Lead Condition in Visible, Infrared and Microwave Satellite Imagery. Journal of Geophysical Research 102: 13657-13671. Key, J. R., R. Stone, J. A. Maslanik, and E. Ellefsen. 1993. The Detectability of Sea-Ice Leads in Satellite Data as a Function of Atmospheric Conditions and Measurement Scale, Annals of Glaciology 17: 227-232. Kwok, R. and G. F. Cunningham. 1994. Use of Time Series SAR Data to Resolve Ice Type Ambiguities in Newly Opened Leads. IGARSS'94: International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium. Surface and Atmospheric Remote Sensing: Technologies, Data Analysis, and Interpretation: 1024-1026. Lindsay, R. W. and D. A. Rothrock. 1995. Arctic Sea Ice Leads from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Images. Journal of Geophysical Research 100: 4533-4544. Mahoney, A. 2006. 'Alaska Landfast Sea Ice Dynamics.' Ph.D. Thesis, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK, August 2006. Mahoney, A., H. Eicken, L. Shapiro, and A. Graves. 2005. Defining and Locating the Seaward Landfast Ice Edge in Northern Alaska. In: 18th International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions, J.P. Dempsey (Editor). POAC '05 Proceedings Volume 3, Potsdam, NY, June 26-30, 2005. Mahoney, A., H. Eicken, A. G. Gaylord, and L. Shapiro. 2007. Alaska Landfast Sea Ice: Links with Bathymetry and Atmospheric Circulation. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, C02001. Stroeve, J., M. Serreze, S. Drobot, S. Gearheard, M. Holland, J. Maslanik, W. Meier, and T. Scambos. 2008. Arctic Sea Ice Extent Plummets in 2007. EOS, 89(2), 8 January.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19931209
Ending_Date: 20040729
Currentness_Reference:Unknown
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -164.08084
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -129.87714
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 73.95769
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 68.48204
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD SCIENCE PARAMETERS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD PLATFORM
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD INSTRUMENT
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ANCILLARY KEYWORDS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO TOPIC CATEGORY
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: DATA SET LANGUAGE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > SEA ICE > ICE EDGES
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > SEA ICE > ICE EXTENT
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > SEA ICE > LEADS
Theme_Keyword: NOAA-12 > NATIONAL OCEANIC & ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION-12
Theme_Keyword: NOAA-14 > NATIONAL OCEANIC & ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION-14
Theme_Keyword: NOAA-15 > NATIONAL OCEANIC & ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION-15
Theme_Keyword: NOAA-16 > NATIONAL OCEANIC & ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION-16
Theme_Keyword: NOAA-17 > NATIONAL OCEANIC & ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION-17
Theme_Keyword: RADARSAT-1
Theme_Keyword: AVHRR > ADVANCED VERY HIGH RESOLUTION RADIOMETER
Theme_Keyword: SAR > SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR
Theme_Keyword: Avhrr
Theme_Keyword: Beaufort Sea
Theme_Keyword: Chukchi Sea
Theme_Keyword: Infrared
Theme_Keyword: Landfast Ice
Theme_Keyword: Leads
Theme_Keyword: Noaa
Theme_Keyword: Radarsat-1
Theme_Keyword: Radarsat Imagery
Theme_Keyword: Sar Imagery
Theme_Keyword: Sea Ice Extent
Theme_Keyword: Visible Imagery
Theme_Keyword: CLIMATOLOGY/METEOROLOGY/ATMOSPHERE
Theme_Keyword: ENGLISH
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD
Place_Keyword: OCEAN > ARCTIC OCEAN > BEAUFORT SEA
Place_Keyword: OCEAN > ARCTIC OCEAN > CHUKCHI SEA
Place_Keyword: GEOGRAPHIC REGION > ARCTIC
Place_Keyword: GEOGRAPHIC REGION > POLAR
Access_Constraints: Not Available
Use_Constraints:
Not Available
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: NSIDC USER SERVICES
Contact_Position: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
Address: University of Colorado
City: Boulder
State_or_Province: CO
Postal_Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +1 (303) 492-6199
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +1 (303) 492-2468
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: nsidc@nsidc.org
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Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
Note: NSIDC did not perform a quality assessment of the data. Landfast Ice Extent: The manual process for identifying landfast ice extent has subjectivity. However, this subjectivity was reduced by using a gradient difference. Refer to the landfast ice extent Data Processing section of this document for more information on the gradient difference. The following is a list of the quality checks performed on the landfast ice (Mahoney et al. 2005): * Data were checked for adequate coverage over the study area (subregions 2-11). * Images with a large geolocation error were identified and either corrected or disregarded. * The geolocation accuracy could create collocation errors of up to 10 pixels or 1 km between parts of two mosaics. Leads: The following checks were performed on the AVHRR data: * Manually examined all scenes and excluded images or image sections with any trace of cloud cover or ambiguous lead/cloud features to keep the potential source of error due to clouds and fog to a minimum. * Classified lead/ice images were compared to ship-based observations of lead fractions in May and June of 2004 and found to be in reasonable agreement with a deviation of two and one percentage-point, respectively.
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Not Available
Completeness_Report:
Not Available
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Not Available
Process_Date: Unknown
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Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Geographic:
Latitude_Resolution: 100 m
Latitude_Resolution: 1.1 km
Longitude_Resolution: 100 m
Longitude_Resolution: 1.1 km
Geographic_Coordinate_Units: Decimal degrees
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Geographic:
Latitude_Resolution: 100 m
Latitude_Resolution: 1.1 km
Longitude_Resolution: 100 m
Longitude_Resolution: 1.1 km
Geographic_Coordinate_Units: Decimal degrees
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Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: NSIDC_NOAA > National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at the National Snow and Ice Data Center
Contact_Person: NSIDC NOAA USER SERVICES
Contact_Position: DATA CENTER CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
Address: University of Colorado
City: Boulder
State_or_Province: CO
Postal_Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +1 (303) 492-6199
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +1 (303) 492-2468
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: nsidc@nsidc.org
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
Contact_Person: NSIDC USER SERVICES
Contact_Position: DATA CENTER CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
Address: University of Colorado
City: Boulder
State_or_Province: CO
Postal_Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +1 (303) 492-6199
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +1 (303) 492-2468
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: nsidc@nsidc.org
Resource_Description: G02173
Distribution_Liability:
Not Available
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: ESRI Grid
Format_Name: ESRI Interchange
Format_Name: Microsoft Excel
Format_Name: XML
Format_Name: Microsoft Access
Format_Name: ESRI Shapefiles (.shp, .shx, .dbf, and .prj)
Format_Name: Joint Photographic Expert Group (JPEG) (.jpg)
Format_Name: Geographic Tagged Image File Format (GeoTIFF) (.geotiff)
Transfer_Size: .1 - 30 MB
Transfer_Size: .1 - 30 MB
Transfer_Size: .1 - 30 MB
Transfer_Size: 15 - 22 KB
Transfer_Size: 7 - 86 MB
Transfer_Size: .1 - 30 MB
Transfer_Size: .1 - 30 MB
Transfer_Size: .1 - 30 MB
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://nsidc.org/noaa/
Access_Instructions:
DATA CENTER URL
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://nsidc.org
Access_Instructions:
DATA CENTER URL
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://nsidc.org/noaa/index.html
Access_Instructions:
NOAA at NSIDC Web Site
Fees: Not Available
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Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20090617
Metadata_Review_Date: 20140410
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: GCMD User Support Office
Contact_Organization: NASA Global Change Master Directory
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Not Available
City: Lanham
State_or_Province: MD
Postal_Code: 20706
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: Not Available
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gcmduso@gcmd.gsfc.nasa.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: local time
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