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South Puget Sound Model Nutrient Study

Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Washington State Department of Ecology
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title: South Puget Sound Model Nutrient Study
Edition:
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form:
Series_Information:
Series_Name:
Issue_Identification:
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Olympia, Washington
Publisher: Washington State Department of Ecology
Other_Citation_Details:
Online_Linkage: http://www.ecy.wa.gov/ecyhome.html
Description:
Abstract:
Ecology's Southwest Regional Office (SWRO) is concerned about nonpoint and point source nutrient loading to the southern portion of Puget Sound (located south of The Narrows near Tacoma). Their major concern is that the past and future growth around this region may cause adverse effects on water quality due to increased eutrophication. The SWRO requested that the Environmental Investigations and Laboratory Services (EILS) Program evaluate the ability of the South Sound to assimilate nutrients, and if needed, recommend point source waste load allocations (WLAs) and nonpoint source load allocations (LAs) for controlling nutrients. Excessive nutrient inputs can accelerate the eutrophication process and affect water quality in the following ways: 1) increase the growth of algae and cause shifts in community structure, leading to the predominance of undesirable forms (e.g., toxic phytoplankton blooms); 2) alter the balance between phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish and shellfish that may result in an unusually high accumulation rate of organic matter on bottom sediments, which may depress bottom oxygen concentrations; 3) change the aerobic bacteria populations to anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria, that can poison the water column with hydrogen sulfide, which may lead to further community structure changes; and 4) affect recreational activities due to objectionable odors, and unsightly algal mats. The capacity of South Sound to assimilate pollutants from its drainage basins is presently not well understood. The major goal of this project is to develop a computer model that can be used to simulate hydrodynamics and water quality, characterize and evaluate pollutant loading, and identify specific point and nonpoint sources of pollutants to South Sound. If needed, another goal of the project will be to establish a total maximum daily load (TMDL) for waterbodies not meeting standards. The TMDL will be used to regulate pollutant loads and establish appropriate point source wasteload allocations (WLAs), and nonpoint source load allocations (LAs). Technical Approach Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act, requires states to develop TMDLs for their waterbodies that are not meeting their designated uses under technology-based pollutant controls. However, Ecology has not adopted nutrient criteria or recommended procedures for protecting waterbodies from excessive nutrient loading. Since no site-specific or numeric nutrient criteria exist for the Puget Sound, criteria must be developed to protect the designated uses and water quality standards. For the South Sound, EILS is proposing to develop site-specific nutrient criteria based on linking measured nutrient concentrations (or loads) and an endpoint indicator--i.e., dissolved oxygen concentrations. The marine water quality standards for dissolved oxygen vary according to the classification of a waterbody. The waterbody Classes AA, A, and B are required to have dissolved oxygen concentrations which exceed 7.0, 6.0, and 5.0 mg/L, respectively, to meet state standards. In addition, the following applies to all of the Classes: "When natural conditions, such as upwelling, occur, causing the dissolved oxygen to be depressed near or below the criterion, natural dissolved oxygen levels may be degraded by up to 0.2 mg/L by human-caused activities." This last condition is likely to be the endpoint indicator to link changes in nutrient concentrations (loading) to water quality violations which may occur in South Sound. The reason the South Sound is considered a good candidate for linking the effects of nutrients to dissolved oxygen concentrations and the allowable 0.2 mg/L degradation is because many of the bays and inlets in the region have periods (primarily in late summer) when oxygen concentrations drop below the criteria. The natural dissolved oxygen concentrations in many of the South Sound waters are sometimes lower than the criteria because upwelled Pacific Ocean water flowing into the Puget Sound can have naturally low dissolved oxygen. Newton et al., (1997) assessed dissolved oxygen concentrations in Puget Sound and suggested that bottom dissolved oxygen concentrations can be exacerbated in areas that have strong density stratification (e.g., in areas with freshwater input), high production due to inhibited mixing, and oxidation of sunken organic material (i.e., dead phytoplankton.). Eutrophication will likely have the greatest impact in South Sound areas where flushing is low, where strong density stratification occurs, and where phytoplankton growth may be nutrient limited, such as in bays and inlets. The following factors control nutrient enrichment, eutrophication, and oxygen depletion: (1) nutrient loading rates from atmospheric deposition, tributary inflows, point source discharges, nonpoint source inputs (shorelands), and sediment-water exchange; (2) hydrodynamic characteristics such as tides, stratification, mixing, and freshwater inflow; and (3) photosynthetic characteristics and processes such as light availability (season, depth), temperature, growth, death, respiration, settling, and other phytoplankton kinetics. In order to determine the nutrient concentration that can be assimilated into the South Sound without causing violations of the endpoint target, EILS is proposing to model the waterbody. Model predictions will be used to establish the nutrient criteria by simulating estimated critical conditions and nutrient loading based on past, present, and future water quality scenarios. The central issues in calibrating the hydrodynamic or circulation model of the South Sound will be simulating the tides, currents, and salinity gradients. The pattern and motion of water in the South Sound influences the distribution of dissolved oxygen. For example, stratification established by light, fresh water inputs, and salty Pacific Ocean water inflows may limit the vertical exchange of dissolved oxygen and increase oxygen depletion in the bottom waters. Although much more complicated, the circulation may also affect algal productivity and the ultimate deposition and decomposition of the organic mater produced from algal blooms. The central issues in calibrating the water quality model will be simulating the primary production by algae, decomposition of oxygen containing material, and the concentration of dissolved oxygen. Understanding the planktonic organisms, the effects of nutrient enrichment, and the rates and pathways of organic matter production and decomposition will determine the precision and accuracy of the model to predict dissolved oxygen concentrations. In order to predict circulation and water quality with the EFDC model the suite of variables listed below will have to be determined by using a combination of historical and newly collected data. Circulation/Transport Stage (tide gauge data) Current (velocity and direction) Salinity Suspended Solids Tributary freshwater inflows Precipitation Wind (speed and direction) Atmospheric pressure/relative humidity/cloud cover Temperature (water and air) Eutrophication/Dissolved Oxygen Salinity Suspended solids Dissolved oxygen Nitrate-nitrite-N Total kjeldahl-N Total phosphorus Primary Production Metals (iron, manganese) Silica Zooplankton Temperature Biochemical Oxygen Demand (CBOD/NBOD) Total and dissolved organic carbon Ammonium-N Ortho-phosphate Solar Radiation Light Extinction Algal Composition/Biomass (diatoms, dinoflagellates, cyanobacteria, greens) Chlorophyll a/phaeopigments Tributary Loads (nutrients, BOD) Sediment Sedimentation Rate (lead 210/sediment cores) Sediment Oxygen Demand Resuspension Rates (percent solids, silica) Particulate Flux (nutrient transport and cycling, pigment transport and distribution) Information was obtained from "http://www.ecy.wa.gov/ecyhome.html".
Purpose:
Not Available
Supplemental_Information:
Not Available
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19980101
Ending_Date: Unknown
Currentness_Reference:Unknown
Status:
Progress: In Work
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -125.15
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -116.53
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 49.39
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 45.15
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD SCIENCE PARAMETERS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ANCILLARY KEYWORDS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO TOPIC CATEGORY
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: DATA SET LANGUAGE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR > HUMIDITY
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR > WATER VAPOR
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC WINDS > CONVERGENCE/DIVERGENCE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > PRECIPITATION > PRECIPITATION AMOUNT
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > VEGETATION > NUTRIENTS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > HUMAN DIMENSIONS > ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS > CONTAMINANT LEVELS/SPILLS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > SURFACE WATER > SURFACE WATER PROCESSES/MEASUREMENTS > STAGE HEIGHT
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > WATER QUALITY/WATER CHEMISTRY > SUSPENDED SOLIDS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > DISSOLVED GASES > DISSOLVED OXYGEN
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > NITROGEN > TOTAL NITROGEN
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > NUTRIENTS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > PH
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
Theme_Keyword: Fecal Coliform
Theme_Keyword: Dissolved Oxygen
Theme_Keyword: Total Nitrogen
Theme_Keyword: Ph
Theme_Keyword: Toxic Substances
Theme_Keyword: BIOTA
Theme_Keyword: CLIMATOLOGY/METEOROLOGY/ATMOSPHERE
Theme_Keyword: ENVIRONMENT
Theme_Keyword: GEOSCIENTIFIC INFORMATION
Theme_Keyword: INLAND WATERS
Theme_Keyword: OCEANS
Theme_Keyword: ENGLISH
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD
Place_Keyword: OCEAN > PACIFIC OCEAN > PUGET SOUND
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
None
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: ROBERT CUSIMANO
Contact_Position: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Washington State Department of Ecology
Address: Environmental Investigations and Laboratory Services Program
Address: P.O. Box 47710
City: Olympia
State_or_Province: WA
Postal_Code: 98504-7710
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (360) 407-6000
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: bcus461@ecy.wa.gov
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Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
In order to improve the usefulness of the South Puget Sound Nutrient Study results and focus the planning process, a Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) will be completed in FY99 (see Project Schedule). EILS guidelines and specifications for preparing a QAPP will be followed (Ecology, 1991). At a minimum, the QAPP will contain a review of the following elements: 1. Project description 2. Project objectives and goals 3. Study design 4. Data analysis and modeling 5. Project schedule and laboratory budget 6. Project organization 7. Data quality objectives and analytical procedures 8. Sampling procedures The QAPP will discuss the data needed to calibrate and confirm the EFDC model, and establish nutrient loading to the modeled area. The QAPP will also discuss in more detail how the model will be used to determine the potential to violate water quality criteria, and recommend waste load allocations (WLAs) for point sources and load allocations (LAs) for nonpoint sources of nutrients. However, developing a rough calibrated EFDC model (using historical data) of the South Sound will be pursued in parallel with preparing the QAPP. An important part of defining the data quality objectives for this project will be to identify what decisions and actions might be taken based on the proposed study. Ecology's regional office watershed managers (see Project Organization) will need to develop decision statements for addressing the results of the study. The decision statements should address what decisions and actions Ecology will make if specific parts of South Sound are estimated to have increased algal growth and reduced dissolved oxygen concentrations because of human caused contributions of nutrients. EPA (1997) has identified the following specific activities for developing decision statements: Define the alternative actions that could result from resolution of the principal study question. Combine the principal study question and the alternative actions into a decision statement. If applicable, organize multiple decisions to be made by priority.
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Not Available
Completeness_Report:
Not Available
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Not Available
Process_Date: Unknown
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Spatial_Reference_Information:
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Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: WA/DE > Department of Ecology, Washington State
Contact_Person: GREGORY PELLETIER
Contact_Position: DATA CENTER CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Washington State Department of Ecology
Address: Environmental Investigations and Laboratory Services Program
Address: Watershed Assessments Section
Address: Post Office Box 47600
City: Olympia
State_or_Province: Washington
Postal_Code: 98504-7600
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 360.407.6485
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 360.407.6884
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gpel461@ecy.wa.gov
Resource_Description: wa_de_spasm
Distribution_Liability:
Not Available
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: Not Available
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://www.ecy.wa.gov/
Access_Instructions:
DATA CENTER URL
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://mercury.ornl.gov/clearinghouse/send/xsltTex...
Access_Instructions:
Metadata in Biological Data Profile format.
Fees: Not Available
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Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20020730
Metadata_Review_Date: 20160127
Metadata_Future_Review_Date: 20030730
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: TYLER B. STEVENS
Contact_Position: DIF AUTHOR
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Address: Global Change Master Directory
City: Greenbelt
State_or_Province: MD
Postal_Code: 20771
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (301) 614-6898
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 301-614-5268
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: Tyler.B.Stevens@nasa.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: local time
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