GRIP Acidity

Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Clausen, H.B., C.U. Hammer, C.S. Hvidberg, D. Dahl-Jensen, J.P. Steffensen, J. Kipfstuhl, and M.R. Legrand
Publication_Date: 1997
Title: GRIP Acidity
Edition:
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form:
Series_Information:
Series_Name: The Greenland Summit Ice Cores CD-ROM
Issue_Identification:
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Boulder, CO
Publisher: WDC/Paleoclimatology
Other_Citation_Details:
National Snow and Ice Data Center, University of Colorado at Boulder
Online_Linkage:
Description:
Abstract:
This data set contains the GRIP acidity record, as calculated from electrical conductivity measurements. Data consists of: 1) Depth in m below the snow surface at a local maximum in the ECM record. 2) Age at the local acid peak in years BP 1950 3) Number of years of high acidity at the local acid peak. 4,5) The mean acid concentration and background concentration in the years of high acidity in micro equivalent H+ per kg of ice (ueq/kg). The data for the past 2000 years are shown on Fig. 3b in Clausen,et al. (1997). Hammer, (1980) and Clausen et al., (1995) describe how the current measured by ECM is converted into concentration of acid. 6) These data are the difference between the data of #4 and #5. The concentrations above the background are of course not all of volcanic origin but they contain the candidates for the major acid producing volcanism. 7) The peak concentration value of strong acid detected in a 1cm sample. 8) The amount of the volcanic acid deposited at the surface during the years of high acidity (called VAD). The amount is calculated as kg sulphuric acid per square kilometer over the time period of enhanced acidity from the concentration in #6 and corrected for the effect of the thinning of the annual layers due to glacier flow. The VAD is calculated as sulphuric acid, irrespective of the actual anion. Sulphate is the dominant anion in acid volcanic fall-out, but in some cases hydrochloric acid and more seldom hydrofluoric acid are present, and in the case of Dye 3 presence of nitric acid, which does not have a volcanic origin. These data are shown on Fig. 4a - 4d in Clausen et al., (1997). 9) The magnitude of the eruption (the released amount of acid gases into the atmosphere) is expressed in Mtons of sulphuric acid. The magnitude is calculated by comparing the VAD to the deposited amount of total beta-activity from known atmospheric thermonuclear tests at high northern latitude (HNL) and low northern latitude (LNL), Refs. 4 and 5. The calculation assumes an eruption site at HNL for comparative reasons. Some of the data are shown in column (10) of Table 3 in Clausen et al., (1997).
Purpose:
Not Available
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Clausen, H.B., C.U. Hammer, C.S. Hvidberg, D. Dahl-Jensen, J.P. Steffensen, J. Kipfstuhl, and M.R. Legrand. 1997. A comparison of the volcanic records over the past 4000 years from the Greenland Ice Core Project and Dye 3 Greenland ice cores. Journal of Geophysical Research 102:26707-26723.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Wolff, E.W., J.C. Moore, H.B. Clausen, and C.U. Hammer. 1997. Climatic implications of background acidity and other chemistry derived from electrical studies of the Greenland Ice Core Project ice core. Journal of Geophysical Research 102:26325-26332.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Clausen, H.B., C.U. Hammer, J. Christensen, C.S. Hvidberg, D. Dahl-Jensen, M.R. Legrand, and J.P. Steffensen. 1995. 1250 years of global volcanism as revealed by central Greenland ice cores. Ice Core Studies of Global Biogeochemical cycles, annecy, France, R. Delmas (ed.). NATO Advanced Sciences Institutes Series 1, 30:175-194.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Wolff, E.W., J.C. Moore, H.B. Clausen, C.U. Hammer, J. Kipfstuhl, and K. Fuhrer. 1995. Long-term changes in the acid and salt concentrations of the Greenland Ice Core Project ice core from electrical stratigraphy. Journal of Geophysical Research 100:16249-16263.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Moore, J.C., E.W. Wolff, H.B. Clausen, C.U. Hammer, M.R. Legrand, and K. Fuhrer. 1994. Electrical response of the Summit-Greenland ice core to ammonium, sulphuric acid, and hydrochloric acid. Geophysical Research Letters 21:565-568.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Moore, J.C., R. Mulvaney, and J.G. Paren. 1989. Dielectric stratigraphy of ice: a new technique for determining total ionic concentrations in polar ice cores. Geophysical Research Letters 16:1177-1180.
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -38.0
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -37.0
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 73.0
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 72.0
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD SCIENCE PARAMETERS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: PROJECT
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ANCILLARY KEYWORDS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO TOPIC CATEGORY
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: DATA SET LANGUAGE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > AEROSOLS > SULFATE PARTICLES
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > TECTONICS > VOLCANIC ACTIVITY > ERUPTION DYNAMICS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > SOLID EARTH > TECTONICS > VOLCANIC ACTIVITY > ERUPTION DYNAMICS > VOLCANIC GASES
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > PALEOCLIMATE > ICE CORE RECORDS > ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES
Theme_Keyword: GRIP > GREENLAND ICE CORE PROJECT
Theme_Keyword: Acidity
Theme_Keyword: Electrical Conductivity
Theme_Keyword: Acid Concentration
Theme_Keyword: Volcanic Acid
Theme_Keyword: Eruption
Theme_Keyword: CLIMATOLOGY/METEOROLOGY/ATMOSPHERE
Theme_Keyword: GEOSCIENTIFIC INFORMATION
Theme_Keyword: ENGLISH
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > GREENLAND
Access_Constraints: Not Available
Use_Constraints:
Not Available
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: HENRIK B. CLAUSON
Contact_Position: INVESTIGATOR
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: The Niels Bohr Institute
Address: Department of Geophysics
Address: University of Copenhagen
City: Juliane Maries Vej 30
State_or_Province: Copenhagen O
Postal_Code: DK2100
Country: Denmark
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hbc@gfy.ku.dk
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Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
Not Available
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Not Available
Completeness_Report:
Not Available
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Not Available
Process_Date: Unknown
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Spatial_Reference_Information:
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Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: WDC/PALEOCLIMATOLOGY, BOULDER > World Data Center for Paleoclimatology, Boulder
Contact_Person: WDC/PALEOCLIMATOLOGY, BOULDER
Contact_Position: DATA CENTER CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: World Data Center for Paleoclimatology
Address: NOAA/NCDC Code E/GCx3
Address: 325 Broadway
City: Boulder
State_or_Province: CO
Postal_Code: 80303
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +1 (303) 497-6160
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +1 (303) 497-6513
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: paleo@noaa.gov
Resource_Description: NOAA_NCDC_PALEO_GRIP_ACIDITY
Distribution_Liability:
Not Available
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: ascii
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/
Access_Instructions:
DATA CENTER URL
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
ftp://ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/icecore/gre...
Access_Instructions:
Access to GRIP acid concentrations
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/icecore/greenland/s...
Access_Instructions:
Greenland Summit Ice Cores data and documentation
Fees: None
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Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20050519
Metadata_Review_Date: 20050519
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: GCMD User Support Office
Contact_Organization: NASA Global Change Master Directory
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Not Available
City: Lanham
State_or_Province: MD
Postal_Code: 20706
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: Not Available
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gcmduso@gcmd.gsfc.nasa.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: local time
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