Rock glaciers, Western Andes, Chile

Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Kammer, K
Publication_Date: 19980101
Title: Rock glaciers, Western Andes, Chile
Edition:
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form:
Series_Information:
Series_Name:
Issue_Identification:
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
Other_Citation_Details:
Online_Linkage: http://nsidc.org/data/ggd282.html
Description:
Abstract:
The research area is located along a transect from 18 deg S to 29 deg S in the Chilean Altiplano, the western part of the high intramontane plateau in the Central Andes. This region is located in an extremely arid zone between the tropical and westerly circulation belt. The so-called 'Andean Dry Diagonal' crosses the research area from NW to SE. Over 120 rock glaciers have been mapped from chosen test sites using aerial photographs. Several rock glaciers were visited in the field to compare the results. From the collected data (height above sea level, exposition, activity, latitude) we tried to conclude (paleo-)climatic implications. The distribution was compared with summer and winter precipitation patterns of the research area. The highest number of observed rock glaciers appears in the north and very south of the transect--18 and 29 deg S. Between 23 and 27 deg S there is a sharp decline in the number of rock glaciers. It coincides with the present-day position of the 'Dry Diagonal' in the Western Andes. Most of the mountains in this section have no rock glaciers, although there is sufficient debris supply available. Focusing on activity, altitude, and latitude of the observed rock glaciers north of 24 deg S, respectively, south of 27 deg S there is a domination of active and inactive rock glaciers in comparison to relict rock glaciers. On the other hand, there are no active rock glaciers between 24 and 27 deg S. In this part, relict rock glaciers can lie 800 m higher than the estimated annual 0-degree C isotherm. If we compare rock glacier activity and number with the precipitation pattern of the area we note that the biggest number of active rock glaciers lie in the region with highest precipitation rates. In the driest part of the test area where the Andean Dry Diagonal crosses the Western Andes there are no active rock glaciers. They can be found in areas with estimated annual precipitation rates of 200 mm and more. Most of the observed rock glaciers lie in ice free cirques. These were probably built up after, or at, the time of a general ice decay. For the northern part between 18 and 24 deg S, we suggest glacier advances during the so-called Tauca-phase at 12,000-8,000 yr BP. The majority of the rock glaciers in this area can only have formed after 8,000 yr BP. In the southern part of the research area at 29 deg S, we dated a late Holocene glacier advance at 2,600 yr BP, and thus rock glaciers must have formed at the time of the general ice decay after 2,600 yr BP. The altitude of active rock glaciers in the Chilean Andes between 18 and 29 deg S corresponds to the trend of the annual degree C isotherm, with a sharp interruption in the driest zone between 24 and 27 deg S. In this part with less than 100 mm precipitation/yr, the annual 0-degree C isotherm has no control on rock glacier activity -- the observed relict and inactive rock glaciers lie distinctly higher. The driest zone of the research area corresponds with the area with a striking reduction of number of rock glaciers and also coincides with the zone where no active rock glaciers could be found. We conclude that the so-called 'Andean Dry Diagonal' cannot have changed significantly it's position since the time when the rock glaciers were formed, probably in the middle and late Holocene. But we assume an intensification of precipitation to form rock glaciers in the driest part of the research area. These data are presented on the CAPS Version 1.0 CD-ROM, June 1998.
Purpose:
Not Available
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Jenny B., Kammer K. 1996: Jungquartre Vergletscherungen. Geographica Bernensia, in Ammann et al. 1996: Climate Change in den trockenen Anden. G46 Ammann C, 1996: Aktuelle Niederschlagsmuster. Geographica Bernensia 1996: Climate Change in den trockenen Anden. G46 Kammer K., Ammann C.: Rock glaciers in the Western Andes between 18-29S and climatic implications (in prep.)
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -72.0
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -67.0
North_Bounding_Coordinate: -18.0
South_Bounding_Coordinate: -29.0
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD SCIENCE PARAMETERS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ANCILLARY KEYWORDS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO TOPIC CATEGORY
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: DATA SET LANGUAGE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > CRYOSPHERE > FROZEN GROUND > GROUND ICE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > CRYOSPHERE > FROZEN GROUND > PERIGLACIAL PROCESSES
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > CRYOSPHERE > FROZEN GROUND > PERMAFROST
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > CRYOSPHERE > FROZEN GROUND > ROCK GLACIERS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > FROZEN GROUND > GROUND ICE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > FROZEN GROUND > PERIGLACIAL PROCESSES
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > FROZEN GROUND > PERMAFROST
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > FROZEN GROUND > ROCK GLACIERS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > PALEOCLIMATE > LAND RECORDS > GLACIATION
Theme_Keyword: Ground Ice
Theme_Keyword: Mapping
Theme_Keyword: Paleoclimate
Theme_Keyword: Periglacial Processes
Theme_Keyword: Permafrost Properties
Theme_Keyword: Remote Sensing
Theme_Keyword: Rock Glaciers
Theme_Keyword: CLIMATOLOGY/METEOROLOGY/ATMOSPHERE
Theme_Keyword: GEOSCIENTIFIC INFORMATION
Theme_Keyword: ENGLISH
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > SOUTH AMERICA > CHILE > CHILEAN ALTIPLANO, WESTERN (CHILEAN) ANDES
Access_Constraints: Not Available
Use_Constraints:
Not Available
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: KLAUS KAMMER
Contact_Position: INVESTIGATOR
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: University of Bern
Address: Institute of Geography, Paleoecology Group
Address: Hallerstrasse 12
City: Bern
Postal_Code: CH-3012
Country: Switzerland
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: jenny@giub.unibe.ch
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: imhof@giub.unibe.ch
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Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
Not Available
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Not Available
Completeness_Report:
Not Available
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Not Available
Process_Date: Unknown
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Spatial_Reference_Information:
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Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: NSIDC > National Snow and Ice Data Center
Contact_Person: NSIDC USER SERVICES
Contact_Position: DATA CENTER CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
Address: University of Colorado
City: Boulder
State_or_Province: CO
Postal_Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +1 (303) 492-6199
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +1 (303) 492-2468
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: nsidc@nsidc.org
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: NSIDC_FGDC > Frozen Ground Data Center
Contact_Person: NSIDC FGDC USER SERVICES
Contact_Position: DATA CENTER CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: National Snow and Ice Data Center
Address: CIRES, 449 UCB
Address: University of Colorado
City: Boulder
State_or_Province: CO
Postal_Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +1 (303) 492-6199
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +1 (303) 492-2468
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: nsidc@nsidc.org
Resource_Description: GGD282
Distribution_Liability:
Not Available
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: ASCII Text
Format_Name: PDF
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://nsidc.org
Access_Instructions:
DATA CENTER URL
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://nsidc.org/fgdc/
Access_Instructions:
DATA CENTER URL
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Fees: Not Available
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Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 19980101
Metadata_Review_Date: 20130801
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: GCMD User Support Office
Contact_Organization: NASA Global Change Master Directory
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Not Available
City: Lanham
State_or_Province: MD
Postal_Code: 20706
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: Not Available
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gcmduso@gcmd.gsfc.nasa.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: local time
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