Electronically Scanned Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) Measurements Taken Onboard the NASA DC-8 During the TOGA COARE Intensive Observing Period

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Citation_Information:
Originator: TOGA COARE
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title: Electronically Scanned Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) Measurements Taken Onboard the NASA DC-8 During the TOGA COARE Intensive Observing Period
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Online_Linkage: http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov/fieldexp/TOGA/
Description:
Abstract:
DATA ACCESS The NASA/TOGA COARE Data Archive http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov/fieldexp/TOGA/ The ESMR data are available from the NASA GSFC DAAC via ftp from ftp://disc1.gsfc.nasa.gov/data/toga_coare/aircraft/nasa_dc8/esmr BACKGROUND TOGA COARE was a multidisciplinary, international research effort that investigated the scientific phenomena associated with the interaction between the atmosphere and the ocean in the warm pool region of the western Pacific. The field experiment phase of the program took place from 1 November 1992 through 28 February 1993 and involved the deployment of oceanographic ships and buoys, several ship and land based Doppler radars, multiple low and high level aircraft equipped with Doppler radar and other airborne sensors, as well as a variety of surface based instruments for in situ observations. The NASA component of TOGA COARE, while contributing directly to overall COARE objectives, emphasized scientific objectives associated with the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and NASA's cloud and radiation program. INSTRUMENT INFORMATION The ESMR instrument, which was mounted on NASA's DC-8 aircraft for the TOGA COARE Field Experiment, is a 19.35 GHz scanning radiometer that measures brightness temperatures in degrees Kelvin. It was operational during 13 mission flights of the DC-8 between 11 January and 26 February 1993 under the direction of Dr. Thomas Wilheit of Texas A & M University. The objective for the ESMR instrument in the TOGA COARE Campaign was to provide observations to develop better radiative transfer models for rainfall retrieval algorithms to be used in the development of the TRMM research paradigm. The ESMR radiometer is nadir-mounted in the aircraft and scans in a plane perpendicular to the direction of flight with a swath of +/-50 degrees from nadir. Beam position (BP) 20 is at nadir during level flight; BP 1 is 50 degrees to the left, and BP 39 is 50 degrees to the right. The beam positions are distributed in equal divisions of the sine of the scan angle. When the pitch and roll of the plane are negligible, a simple algorithm can be used to obtain the latitude and longitude at each BP. If we define: - BP is the beam position (integer, 1-39) - sinBP is the sine of the scan angle of the BP - lat and lon are the aircraft position - ofsBP is the offset angle of the BP - hdg is the aircraft heading - alt is the aircraft altitude - latBP and lonBP are the latitude and longitude of the beam position Then execute the following calculations: sinBP = (sin(50/57.2)*(BP-20)/19) ofsBP = 0.1 * (sinBP/sqrt(1-sinBP*sinBP)) latBP = lat - ofsBP*sin(hdg)*alt/36000 lonBP = lon + ofsBP*cos(hdg)*alt/(cos(lat)*36000) DATA ORGANIZATION One data product consisting of 13 binary files of calibrated brightness temperatures in degrees Kelvin was produced by the ESMR instrument during the TOGA COARE Campaign. Each file contains data from 1 flight. The ESMR data totals appproximately 12 MB in volume and has a typical file size of approximately .8 MB. The naming convention for ESMR files is <julian day>.tbn. The TbN data format is as follows bytes Type variable 1-39 unsign 1 byte Brightness Temp for each BP (add 100.) 40 " Hour 41 " Minute 42 " Seconds (integer part) 43 " Hundredths of seconds 44-45 signed 2-byte Julian Day 46-47 " Latitude(integer part) 48-49 " 1/10000ths of latitude 50-51 " Longitude (integer part) 52-53 " 1/10000ths of longitude 54-55 " Altitude (tens of feet) 56-57 " Heading (tenths of degrees) 58-59 " Roll (tenths of degrees) 60-61 " Pitch (tenths of degrees) 62-64 - Empty Note that the latitude and longitude fractions share the same sign; to obtain either variable, simply sum the integer and fractional parts without manipulating the signs. All of the integers are standard MS-DOS format. ESMR Browse Images: A series of GIF images which are 256 color pictures of the data, made from screen shots of the data viewing program. The GIF images are labeled with the Julian Day, hour and minute that the data starts, in the form DDDHHMM.GIF. The GIFs are 800x600, and can be viewed with any image viewing application, on any platform. If you do transfer the files to another platform, remember to transfer them in binary (8-bit) format. There are GIF images for all of the high-priority convection legs and days specified by Drs. Ed Zipser, Barry Nolan, and others at the 3-6 August TOGA COARE Conference in San Diego. SOFTWARE 1) DOS Software: Read software in Turbo Pascal (RDTBNAV) was submitted by the ESMR instrument team. The program reads a specified record from an ESMR binary data file and displays it to the pc screen. Program DISP_TB displays an ESMR image file to the pc screen. Display software used by the PI in processing the data is also available. It runs in a DOS environment and requires a Super VGA videocard based on the Tseng chipset or a VESA standard compatible videocard with appropriate drivers. 2) UNIX Software: Program esmr_read.c was created by the GSFC DAAC to provide the functionality of the original Pascal read program to UNIX users. Porting the ESMR dataset from a PC to the DAAC's Silicon Graphics machines required a byte swap when loading 2-byte data values into integers, an implementation-dependent feature that may not be required on other systems. The program is self-documenting. A validation file (ESMR.dat) displaying correct values from the first ten records in data file 011.tbn is offered to assist UNIX users in adapting program esmr_read.c to their environments. It resides with the UNIX software.
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Not Available
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REFERENCE: Chang, A.T.C., A. Barnes, M. Glass, R. Kakar, & T.T. Wilheit, 1993: Aircraft observations of the vertical structure of stratiform precipitation relevant to microwave radiative transfer. J. Appl. Meteor. 32, 1083-1091. FIRE Project Office, 1994: NASA/TOGA COARE Science Data Workshop II, Proceedings of a workshop held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, March 15-17, 1994. NASA Langley Research Center, Mail Stop 483, Hampton, VA 23666. NASA TOGA COARE Project Office, 1993: Mission Summary Reports, TOGA COARE. NASA Langley Research Center, Mail Stop 483, Hampton, VA 23666. TOGA COARE International Project Office (TCIPO), 1992: TOGA COARE Operations Plan, Working Version September 1992. University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Boulder CO, 80307, 138 pp. TOGA COARE International Project Office (TCIPO), 1993: TOGA COARE Intensive Observing Period Operations Summary. University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80307, 505 pp. TOGA COARE International Project Office (TCIPO), 1994: Summary Report of the TOGA COARE International Data Workshop, Toulouse, France, 2 - 11 August 1994, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80307, 170 pp. Webster, P.J., and R. Lukas, 1992: TOGA COARE: The Coupled Ocean- Atmosphere Response Experiment. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 73, 1377-1416. Wilheit, T.T., A.T.C. Chang and L.S. Chiu, 1991: Retrieval of Monthly rainfall indices from microwave radiometric measurements using probability distribution functions. J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., 8, 118-136. Wilheit, T.T., et al., 1994: Algorithms for the retrieval of rainfall from passive microwave measurements. Submitted to Reviews of Remote Sensing. World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), 1985: Scientific Plan for the TOGA Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment. WCRP Publications Series, No. 3 Addendum, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, 96 pp.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19930101
Ending_Date: 19930228
Currentness_Reference:Unknown
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: 140.0
East_Bounding_Coordinate: 180.0
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 10.0
South_Bounding_Coordinate: -20.0
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD SCIENCE PARAMETERS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD PLATFORM
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD INSTRUMENT
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: PROJECT
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ANCILLARY KEYWORDS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO TOPIC CATEGORY
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > PRECIPITATION > PRECIPITATION AMOUNT
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION > SOLAR IRRADIANCE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION > SOLAR RADIATION
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > SPECTRAL/ENGINEERING > MICROWAVE > BRIGHTNESS TEMPERATURE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > SPECTRAL/ENGINEERING > MICROWAVE > MICROWAVE IMAGERY
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > SPECTRAL/ENGINEERING > PLATFORM CHARACTERISTICS > ATTITUDE CHARACTERISTICS
Theme_Keyword: DC-8 > DOUGLAS DC-8
Theme_Keyword: ESMR > ELECTRONIC SCANNING MICROWAVE RADIOMETER
Theme_Keyword: RADIOMETERS
Theme_Keyword: EOSDIS > EARTH OBSERVING SYSTEM DATA INFORMATION SYSTEM
Theme_Keyword: ESIP > EARTH SCIENCE INFORMATION PARTNERS PROGRAM
Theme_Keyword: TOGA COARE > TOGA COUPLED OCEAN ATMOSPHERE RESPONSE EXPERIMENT
Theme_Keyword: Air-sea
Theme_Keyword: Aircraft
Theme_Keyword: Algorithm
Theme_Keyword: Atmospheric Circulation
Theme_Keyword: Atmospheric Experiment
Theme_Keyword: Australia
Theme_Keyword: Brightness Temperature
Theme_Keyword: Cdiu
Theme_Keyword: Coare
Theme_Keyword: Convection
Theme_Keyword: Convective
Theme_Keyword: Daac
Theme_Keyword: Dc-8
Theme_Keyword: Dc8
Theme_Keyword: Esmr
Theme_Keyword: Ftp
Theme_Keyword: Gif
Theme_Keyword: Gsfc
Theme_Keyword: Ifa
Theme_Keyword: Images
Theme_Keyword: Intensive Flux Array
Theme_Keyword: Intensive Observing Period
Theme_Keyword: Iop
Theme_Keyword: Kelvin
Theme_Keyword: Mesoscale
Theme_Keyword: Meteorology
Theme_Keyword: Nadir
Theme_Keyword: Nasa
Theme_Keyword: Radiation
Theme_Keyword: Radiative Transfer Model
Theme_Keyword: Radiometer
Theme_Keyword: Rainfall
Theme_Keyword: Scanning
Theme_Keyword: Toga
Theme_Keyword: Toga Coare
Theme_Keyword: Townsville
Theme_Keyword: Trmm
Theme_Keyword: Warm Pool
Theme_Keyword: Western Pacific Ocean
Theme_Keyword: Www
Theme_Keyword: Eosdis
Theme_Keyword: CLIMATOLOGY/METEOROLOGY/ATMOSPHERE
Theme_Keyword: GEOSCIENTIFIC INFORMATION
Theme_Keyword: IMAGERY/BASE MAPS/EARTH COVER
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD
Place_Keyword: OCEAN > PACIFIC OCEAN
Place_Keyword: GEOGRAPHIC REGION > EQUATORIAL
Place_Keyword: VERTICAL LOCATION > BOUNDARY LAYER
Place_Keyword: VERTICAL LOCATION > TROPOSPHERE
Access_Constraints: Not Available
Use_Constraints:
Not Available
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: RICK RUSSELL
Contact_Position: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Department of Meteorology
Address: Texas A&M University
City: College Station
State_or_Province: TX
Postal_Code: 77843-3150
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (409) 845-7671
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (409) 845-6331
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: rick-russell@tamu.edu
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Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
Not Available
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Not Available
Completeness_Report:
Not Available
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Not Available
Process_Date: Unknown
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Spatial_Reference_Information:
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Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: NASA/GSFC/SED/ESD/GCDC/GESDISC > Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (formerly Goddard DAAC), Global Change Data Center, Earth Sciences Division, Science and Exploration Directorate, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA
Contact_Person: GES DISC HELP DESK SUPPORT GROUP
Contact_Position: DATA CENTER CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center
Address: Code 610.2
Address: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
City: Greenbelt
State_or_Province: MD
Postal_Code: 20771
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 301-614-5224
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 301-614-5268
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gsfc-help-disc@lists.nasa.gov
Resource_Description: esmr
Distribution_Liability:
Not Available
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/
Access_Instructions:
DATA CENTER URL
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
ftp://disc1.gsfc.nasa.gov/data/toga_coare/aircraft...
Access_Instructions:
Access the TOGA COARE ESMR Data.
Fees: Not Available
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Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date:
Metadata_Review_Date: 20140825
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: GCMD User Support Office
Contact_Organization: NASA Global Change Master Directory
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Not Available
City: Lanham
State_or_Province: MD
Postal_Code: 20706
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: Not Available
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gcmduso@gcmd.gsfc.nasa.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: local time
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