Biotoxin Monitoring Program

Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Unknown
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title: Biotoxin Monitoring Program
Description:
Abstract:
Bivalve shellfish are highly sensitive to the quality of their marine environment. They feed on microscopic plants that can sometimes produce marine biotoxins, which can build up in their tissues. Eating shellfish with high levels of these biotoxins can lead to serious and potentially fatal illness. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), as well as Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP) and Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) are the most common human illnesses associated with marine biotoxins in Canada. Bacteria, viruses, metals and contaminants may also build up in the tissues of bivalve shellfish and cause food safety concerns for consumers. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) monitors shellfish harvesting areas to provide early warning of PSP toxins (and other toxins) in shellfish. Hundreds of sites in Atlantic Canada, Quebec and British Columbia are regularly tested for PSP toxins. The Agency analyzes shellfish samples and, when levels are unacceptable, it notifies the Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) which takes immediate action to close the affected area to shellfish harvesting. When areas are closed, signs are posted, media are notified, and DFO fishery officers patrol the areas to prevent the harvesting of shellfish. With an area of 250,000 square kilometres, over 35 commercially harvested marine species and a great variety of fish in its rivers and estuaries, the Gulf of St. Lawrence constitutes one of the world's largest enclosed seas, a highly productive ecosystem, and a major arena of commercial fishing in Atlantic Canada. Waterbody or Watershed Names: Gulf of Saint Lawrence Sponsor: Canadian Food Inspection Agency Additional Information OR Comments: Fact sheets are available from the website. Other information on closures and fishing maps are available at http://www.glf.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/os/aes-sae/dapr-radp/index-e.php?to_doE=refs&subject_cdE=6&rep_idE=r3 A file containing all pertinent sanitary survey information, including the dates and results of preceding surveys and reports is maintained by the shellfish control agency for each classified shellfish area.
Purpose:
Not Available
Supplemental_Information:
Not Available
Status:
Progress: In Work
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -133.5718
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -51.45
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 54.4828
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 43.2138
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD SCIENCE PARAMETERS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: PROJECT
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ANCILLARY KEYWORDS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO TOPIC CATEGORY
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: DATA SET LANGUAGE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > ANIMALS/INVERTEBRATES
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > ANIMALS/INVERTEBRATES > ARTHROPODS > CRUSTACEANS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > ANIMALS/INVERTEBRATES > MOLLUSKS > BIVALVES
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > VIRUSES
Theme_Keyword: GOMMP > GULF OF MAINE MONITORING PROGRAMS
Theme_Keyword: Biotoxins
Theme_Keyword: Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning
Theme_Keyword: Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning
Theme_Keyword: Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning
Theme_Keyword: Molluscs
Theme_Keyword: Blue Mussels
Theme_Keyword: Crustaceans
Theme_Keyword: Groundfish
Theme_Keyword: Pelagic Fish And Diadromous Fish
Theme_Keyword: HEALTH
Theme_Keyword: OCEANS
Theme_Keyword: ENGLISH
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > CANADA
Place_Keyword: OCEAN > ATLANTIC OCEAN > NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN > GULF OF ST LAWRENCE
Access_Constraints: There is no open public access to data. All requests must be individually directed to a specific Shellfish Control Agency for each of the classified shellfish areas in the region, i.e., Eastern Nova Scotia, SW Nova Scotia, New Brunswick. Requests may be made by calling the Biotoxin Monitoring Program Office in Yarmouth, NS at 902-742-6874.
Use_Constraints:
The agency is not obligated to release data to the public. Constraints may exist and should be discussed when making requests.
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Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
In order to maintain reliability of bioassay results, the period of time between the digging of shellfish and extraction should be uniform and limited. Each sample must be properly identified with the area of digging, the species, the date of digging and the sampling officer's name. Samples should be stored at refrigerated temperatures 2 to 7 degrees C (35 to 45 degrees F) until extracted. In the case of aquaculture operations, samples may be collected at the establishment if the same standards of continuity and sample handling are maintained. Regions should have in place a monitoring program to adequately monitor marine biotoxins. As levels begin to rise, sampling frequency is to be increased in accordance with the speed of the rise to ensure timely closure. Areas that have been closed are to be monitored on a regular basis but with increased frequency as PSP scores decline toward acceptable levels. The objective is to ensure that shellfish areas are closed when: 1. PSP toxin levels reach 80 µg/100 g and are opened only when toxin levels are consistently below 80 µg/100 g; 2. ASP toxin levels reach 20 µg/g and are opened only when toxin levels are consistently below 20 µg/g; and 3. DSP chemical analysis gives okadaic acid and/or DTX-1, singly or in combination, of less than 1 microgram per gram (µg/g) of digestive tissue (equivalent to approximately 20 µg/100g soft tissue) and are opened only when consistently below this level. Should departures from the scheduled sampling and/or analyses occur, due to weather conditions, absence of staff, diversion of sampling/analytical resources to areas of higher concern, then factors such as previous toxic history, harvesting activity and other supporting results should be considered and documented in a derogation report for the justification in not closing an area. In addition to normal sampling, when certain species are used for canning (e.g., butter clams in British Columbia) a special Harvesting License (Annex 11B) is required, and the shellfish must be tested for PSP prior to release for sale. Interference Bacteriostatic or bactericidal agents, such as chlorine, silver, lead, and various organic complexes, can significantly reduce bacterial densities in a sample. Contaminating nutrients can cause unwanted growth of organisms in the sample which would result in an overestimation of bacterial densities. Both of these problems can be greatly reduced by insuring that: a) all glassware used in the analyses is free from such substances; b) distilled/deionized water used in media preparation is not contaminated with bacterial, fungal or algal growth; and c) samples are processed as quickly as possible after collection. Growth of certain organisms in the test media which are not of importance to the specific analysis performed can give false positive results, thereby overestimating the true bacterial density. However, the specificity of the test media normally eliminates most of these organisms. Incubation temperatures are critical, and slight changes can alter the kinds and numbers of bacteria growing in the test media. Precision and Accuracy The bacterial density calculated by the MPN method is a statistical estimation and should be treated as such. The 95 percent confidence limits for the 5-tube MPN test, range between 24% and 324% of the MPN; thus, the results of a single sample are by no means conclusive. Accuracy increases with increased sampling, and normally a minimum of five samples are required at each sample location to better approximate the true bacterial density.
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Not Available
Completeness_Report:
Not Available
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Not Available
Process_Date: Unknown
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Spatial_Reference_Information:
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Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: CA/AGR/CFIA > Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Agriculture and Agri-Food, Canada
Contact_Person: KAREN WHITE
Contact_Position: DATA CENTER CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: 215 Main Street
City: Yarmouth
State_or_Province: Nova Scotia
Postal_Code: B5A 1C6
Country: Canada
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (902) 742-6846
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: whiteka@inspection.cg.ca
Resource_Description: gomc_9
Distribution_Liability:
Not Available
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/toce.shtml
Access_Instructions:
DATA CENTER URL
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://www.glf.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/os/aes-sae/dapr-radp/...
Access_Instructions:
Data available by special request according to needs. Data resides at individual Shellfish Control Agencies for each classified shellfish area, e.g., SW Nova Scotia, eastern Nova Scotia, New Brunswick. Phone contact for data requests: 902-742-6874.
Fees: No
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Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20060828
Metadata_Review_Date: 20090326
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: KAREN WHITE
Contact_Position: DIF AUTHOR
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: 215 Main Street
City: Yarmouth
State_or_Province: Nova Scotia
Postal_Code: B5A 1C6
Country: Canada
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (902) 742-6846
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: whiteka@inspection.cg.ca
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: local time
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