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The adaptation of cyanobacterial mats from the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Mt Discovery and the Alph River system to Antarctic environmental extremes

Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Unknown
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title: The adaptation of cyanobacterial mats from the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Mt Discovery and the Alph River system to Antarctic environmental extremes
Description:
Abstract:
The microbial adaptations of the cyanobacterial mats of the ponds of the McMurdo Ice Shelf to the environmental extremes experienced at this location, including changes in temperature and salinity, dehydration-rehydration cycles, low nitrogen: phosphorous ratios and high UV radiation was investigated. The fieldwork was mainly experimental with comparisons made between other pond systems from the McMurdo Sound area including Mt. Discovery - Minna Bluff and Pyramid Trough (Alph River) areas and from as far south as latitude 80°, the Darwin Glacier region. The Mt Discovery and Darwin Glacier regions underwent a limnological survey where ponds were sampled for conductivity, pH, temperature, size, discharge (L/s), depth, ion content (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride and sulphate), DRP, DOP, NH4, NO3, DON, benthic biomass and species composition. At Bratina Island, 12 ponds were studied at weekly intervals for water quality parameters (relative water level, sediment and water temperature, pH, DIC, conductivity, DRP, DOP, NH4, NO3, DON) and chlorophyll a concentrations. In addition, samples of water and dissolved gases were collected from around and below the benthic mats for dissolved gas composition (CO2, CH4 and N2O) and nutrient composition. The microbial adaptation to extreme Antarctic environments (low temperature/high salinity) was studied from a number of different physiological responses including biochemical adaptations (biochemical mechanisms of membrane lipid composition), the photosynthetic responses and changes in nitrogen fixation rates. A series of four experiments designed to examine the physiological responses of the benthic mats to the prevailing and extreme conditions which occur each year including response to extremes of salinity and temperature, short-term dehydration, ambient UV radiation and nutrient conditions were completed. The effects of salinity on mat metabolism by creating a salinity gradient and measuring nitrogen fixation, photosynthesis and respiration rates. A long term aim of research on these communities is to define the light-capturing and light screening properties of the microbial communities which dominate this and other freshwater ecosystems. To meet this aim, HPLC analysis of microbial communities in the Alph River-Trough Lake region was carried out to evaluate the changes in pigment composition as a function of UVA and UVB manipulations and as a response to desiccation and salinity changes.
Purpose:
Not Available
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Vincent, W.F. Howard-Williams, C. Broady, P.A. Microbial communities and processes in Antarctic flowing waters. in: Antarctic microbiology. Friedmann E.I. (ed) New York: Wiley-Liss. 1993. pp.543-569
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Downes, M.T. Hrstich, L. Vincent, W.F. Extraction of chlorophyll and carotenoid from Antarctic benthic mats for analysis by HPLC. Journal of applied phycology 5(6): 623-628, 1993.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Hawes, I. Photosynthesis in thick cyanobacterial films: a comparison of annual and perennial Antarctic mat communities. Hydrobiologia 252(3): 203-209, 1993.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Hawes, I. Howard-Williams, C. Pond life on the McMurdo Ice Shelf - one of the world's strangest ecosystems. Water and atmosphere 11(3): 16-17, 2003.
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Hawes, I. The state of the Ross Sea region terrestrial environment: Aquatic habitats. in: Ross Sea Region 2001: A state of the environment report for the Ross Sea region of Antarctica.Waterhouse E.(ed) Christchurch: New Zealand Antarctic Institute. 2001. pp.4.58-4.78
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Vincent, W.F. Howard-Williams, C. 1994 Nitrate-rich inland waters of the Ross Ice Shelf region, Antarctica. Antarctic science 6(3): 339-346
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Downes, M.T. Hrstich, L. Vincent, W.F. 1993 Extraction of chlorophyll and carotenoid from Antarctic benthic mats for analysis by HPLC. Journal of applied phycology 5(6): 623-628
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Hawes, I. Howard-Williams, C. Vincent, W.F. 1992 Desiccation and recovery of Antarctic cyanobacterial mats. Polar biology 12(6-7): 587-594
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Quesada, A. Vincent, W.F. 1993 Adaptation of cyanobacteria to the light regime within Antarctic microbial mats. Proceedings of the International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology. 2(December): 960-965
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Quesada, A. Mouget, J.L. Vincent, W.F. 1995 Growth of Antarctic cyanobacteria under ultraviolet radiation: UVA counteracts UVB inhibition. Journal of phycology 31(2): 242-248
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Vincent, W.F. Roy, S. 1993 Solar ultraviolet-B radiation and aquatic primary production: damage, protection, and recovery. Environmental reviews 1(1): 1-12
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19901229
Ending_Date: 19910127
Currentness_Reference:Unknown
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: 165.3333
East_Bounding_Coordinate: 165.3333
North_Bounding_Coordinate: -78.0
South_Bounding_Coordinate: -78.0
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD SCIENCE PARAMETERS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD PLATFORM
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ANCILLARY KEYWORDS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO TOPIC CATEGORY
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: DATA SET LANGUAGE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS > WETLANDS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > WATER QUALITY/WATER CHEMISTRY > CHLOROPHYLL
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > WATER QUALITY/WATER CHEMISTRY > CONDUCTIVITY
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > WATER QUALITY/WATER CHEMISTRY > NUTRIENTS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > WATER QUALITY/WATER CHEMISTRY > PH
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > WATER QUALITY/WATER CHEMISTRY > PHOSPHOROUS COMPOUNDS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > WATER QUALITY/WATER CHEMISTRY > WATER TEMPERATURE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > BACTERIA/ARCHAEA > CYANOBACTERIA (BLUE-GREEN ALGAE)
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > PLANTS > MICROALGAE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS > SPECIES/POPULATION INTERACTIONS > EVOLUTIONARY ADAPTATION
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS > ECOSYSTEM FUNCTIONS > NUTRIENT CYCLING
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS > ECOSYSTEM FUNCTIONS > PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Theme_Keyword: FIELD SURVEYS
Theme_Keyword: FIELD INVESTIGATION
Theme_Keyword: Environmental Characteristics
Theme_Keyword: Adaptations
Theme_Keyword: Primary Production
Theme_Keyword: Nutrient Cycling
Theme_Keyword: BIOTA
Theme_Keyword: INLAND WATERS
Theme_Keyword: ENGLISH
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > MCMURDO ICE SHELF
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > MT DISCOVERY
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > ALPH RIVER
Place_Keyword: GEOGRAPHIC REGION > POLAR
Access_Constraints: Not Available
Use_Constraints:
Not Available
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: BRIAN SORRELL
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: IAN HAWES
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: CLIVE HOWARD-WILLIAMS
Contact_Position: INVESTIGATOR
Contact_Position: INVESTIGATOR
Contact_Position: INVESTIGATOR
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: NIWA
Address: PO BOX 11-115
City: Christchurch
Country: New Zealand
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Waterways Centre for Freshwater Management
Address: University of Canterbury
City: Christchurch
Country: New Zealand
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: NIWA
Address: PO BOX 8602
City: Christchurch
Country: New Zealand
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +64 3 343 7802
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +64 3 343 7857
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +64 3 348 5548
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +64 3 348 5548
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: b.sorrell@niwa.co.nz
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: AquaticResearchSolutions@gmail.com
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: ian.hawes@canterbury.ac.nz
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: c.howard-williams@niwa.co.nz
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Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
Not Available
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Not Available
Completeness_Report:
Not Available
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Not Available
Process_Date: Unknown
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Spatial_Reference_Information:
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Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: NZ/NZAI/ANZ > Antarctica New Zealand, New Zealand Antarctic Institute, New Zealand
Contact_Person: SHULAMIT GORDON
Contact_Position: DATA CENTER CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Antarctica New Zealand
Address: Private Bag 4745
City: Christchurch
Country: New Zealand
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +64 3 358 0200
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +64 3 358 0211
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: s.gordon@antarcticanz.govt.nz
Resource_Description: K081_1990_1991_NZ_1
Distribution_Liability:
Not Available
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: Not Available
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://www.antarcticanz.govt.nz/
Access_Instructions:
DATA CENTER URL
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://www.niwa.co.nz/rc/antarctica/
Access_Instructions:
Fees: Not Available
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Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20090109
Metadata_Review_Date: 20090113
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: CEISHA POIROT
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: SHULAMIT GORDON
Contact_Position: DIF AUTHOR
Contact_Position: DIF AUTHOR
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Antarctica New Zealand
Address: Private Bag 4745
City: Christchurch
Country: New Zealand
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Antarctica New Zealand
Address: Private Bag 4745
City: Christchurch
Country: New Zealand
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +64 3 358 0200
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +64 3 358 0200
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +64 3 358 0211
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +64 3 358 0211
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: c.poirot@antarcticanz.govt.nz
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: s.gordon@antarcticanz.govt.nz
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: local time
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