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Measurement of ocean waves and ice coupled waves near a fast ice boundary, McMurdo Sound

Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Unknown
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title: Measurement of ocean waves and ice coupled waves near a fast ice boundary, McMurdo Sound
Description:
Abstract:
Ocean waves interact with Antarctic ice. Pack ice acts as a barrier to wave penetration, and attenuates the propagating waves. The presence of fast ice changes the nature of the wave interaction so that the wave characteristics are now determined by the properties of the ice. The interaction of ocean wave with the fast ice boundary and its contribution to ice breakup was determined experimentally over three seasons of study. The transfer of ocean wave energy into sea ice was measured using a portable microwave radar on Tent Island, McMurdo Sound. The radar derives ocean wave height spectra by measuring the ocean surface velocity as it varies under the action of the waves. The aim of the study was to position the radar close to a fast ice boundary, recording data during periods of ocean wave activity in order to determine the incident wave fields and the nature of the wave reflections. The interactions of ocean waves with both fixed and pack ice and the nature of the radar backscatter from these media was also investigated. In the first season, the radar was operated each day from the 20th to the 27th of January, 1991. During this time, the sea surface around Tent Island changed from a combination of fast and pack ice to continuous open sea to the north and west. In the second season, the radar was operated each day from the 14th to the 27th of January, 1992. The sea ice near Tent Island broke away rapidly in strong southerly conditions but several useful data sets were obtained. All opportunities were exploited to record worthwhile data in the conditions. Four situations were recorded; 1) Radar reflections during calm conditions were recorded from distant pack ice adjacent to the boundary of the fast ice and a water ice mixture close to Tent Island. 2) Strong southerly conditions caused the sea ice to break up and drift away. Radar data was recorded from the substantial drifting ice floes as they passed the radar site. 3) With nothing but clear sea in the radar field of view, a 24 hour data set was obtained of the sea surface drifts near Tent Island to determine the nature of the drifts. 4) A series of measurements were completed to obtain data on the basic nature of radar backscatter from a roughened sea surface when the fetch is small. These data include a range of grazing angles and different polarizations of the radar antenna and will be compared with contemporary theories of microwave backscatter from the sea surface. In the third season, the aims were to determine the spectral distribution of the available ocean wave energy at the fast ice boundary and the proportions of it that are either reflected or transmitted into the ice, and to compare the radar wave data with strain gauges placed in the fast ice to determine the characteristics of the ice coupled waves and their response to the ocean wave forcing. The radar was operated at Backdoor Bay, Cape Royds and at the sea ice edge near Cape Royds from the 22nd of November until the 8th of December in 1992. The radar wave data was compared with strain gauges placed in the fast ice to determine the characteristics of the ice coupled waves and their response to the ocean wave forcing. The measurements conducted include; a) radar measurements of the sea surface adjacent to the ice edge, b) strain gauge measurements in the ice, c) the configuration of the ice edge and in situ ice core sampling and d) underwater acoustic measurements. The microwave radar was mounted on a 15 m tower and installed close to the ice edge. The strain gauges were installed in the ice, in arrays up to 1 km back from the ice edge. Simultaneous measurements were made under two conditions, with an onshore and offshore wind.
Purpose:
Not Available
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Poulter, E.M. McGregor, J.A. Smith, M.J. Ireland, W. 1991 Microwave Bragg scattering from the sea surface at shallow grazing angles. Remote sensing: global monitoring for Earth management: proceedings of the International Geosciences and Remote Sensing Symposium, Espoo, Finland, Helsinki University of Technology, 1991. New York Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers Vol. 3
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Poulter, E.M. Smith, M.J. McGregor, J.A. 1990 Microwave radar measurements of ocean wave propagation - initial results. Geophysical research letters 17(12): 2137-2140
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Poulter, E.M. Smith, M.J. McGregor, J.A. 1994 Microwave backscatter from the sea surface: Bragg scattering by short gravity waves. Journal of geophysical research 99(C4): 7929-7943
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19910120
Ending_Date: 19910127
Currentness_Reference:Unknown
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19920114
Ending_Date: 19920126
Currentness_Reference:Unknown
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19921122
Ending_Date: 19921208
Currentness_Reference:Unknown
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: 166.3833
East_Bounding_Coordinate: 166.3833
North_Bounding_Coordinate: -77.6833
South_Bounding_Coordinate: -77.6833
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: 166.2233
East_Bounding_Coordinate: 166.2233
North_Bounding_Coordinate: -77.5616
South_Bounding_Coordinate: -77.5616
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: 165.505
East_Bounding_Coordinate: 165.505
North_Bounding_Coordinate: -77.5016
South_Bounding_Coordinate: -77.5016
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD SCIENCE PARAMETERS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD PLATFORM
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO TOPIC CATEGORY
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: DATA SET LANGUAGE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN WAVES > WAVE FETCH
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN WAVES > WAVE FREQUENCY
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN WAVES > WAVE HEIGHT
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN WAVES > WAVE LENGTH
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN WAVES > WAVE PERIOD
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN WAVES > WAVE SPECTRA
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN WAVES > WAVE TYPES
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > SEA ICE > PACK ICE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > SEA ICE > SEA ICE MOTION
Theme_Keyword: FIELD SURVEYS
Theme_Keyword: GROUND STATIONS
Theme_Keyword: FIELD INVESTIGATION
Theme_Keyword: OCEANS
Theme_Keyword: ENGLISH
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > MCMCURDO SOUND
Place_Keyword: GEOGRAPHIC REGION > POLAR
Access_Constraints: Not Available
Use_Constraints:
Not Available
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: MURRAY POULTER
Contact_Position: INVESTIGATOR
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: NIWA
Address: Private Bag 14901
City: Wellington
Postal_Code: 6021
Country: New Zealand
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +64 4 386 0560
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +64 4 386 1585
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: m.poulter@niwa.co.nz
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Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
The raw data is held by NIWA on 90's optical disks. Please contact: Murray Smith NIWA Private Bag 14901 Wellington New Zealand m.smith@niwa.co.nz
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Not Available
Completeness_Report:
Not Available
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Not Available
Process_Date: Unknown
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Spatial_Reference_Information:
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Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: NZ/NZAI/ANZ > Antarctica New Zealand, New Zealand Antarctic Institute, New Zealand
Contact_Person: SHULAMIT GORDON
Contact_Position: DATA CENTER CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Antarctica New Zealand
Address: Private Bag 4745
City: Christchurch
Country: New Zealand
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +64 3 358 0200
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +64 3 358 0211
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: s.gordon@antarcticanz.govt.nz
Resource_Description: K137_1990_1993_NZ_1
Distribution_Liability:
Not Available
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: Not Available
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://www.antarcticanz.govt.nz/
Access_Instructions:
DATA CENTER URL
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Fees: Not Available
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Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20090521
Metadata_Review_Date: 20090606
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: CEISHA POIROT
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: SHULAMIT GORDON
Contact_Position: DIF AUTHOR
Contact_Position: DIF AUTHOR
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Antarctica New Zealand
Address: Private Bag 4745
City: Christchurch
Country: New Zealand
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Antarctica New Zealand
Address: Private Bag 4745
City: Christchurch
Country: New Zealand
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +64 3 358 0200
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +64 3 358 0200
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +64 3 358 0211
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +64 3 358 0211
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: c.poirot@antarcticanz.govt.nz
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: s.gordon@antarcticanz.govt.nz
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: local time
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