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Instrument: IES : Inverted Echo Sounders
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Inverted Echo Sounders (IES) measure the temperature of the
water column at a single point. The IES is attached to the ocean
bottom. It emits a sound pulse aimed toward the surface of the
ocean. The sound pulse will reflect off the surface of the ocean
and return to the bottom. The IES listens for the return of the
sound pulse from the ocean surface. The travel time of the sound
is used to calculate the speed of sound through the water. The
temperature profile is calculated from the speed of sound
through the water. The IES must be calibrated with a measurement
of the water column properties. Sometimes a pressure sensor is
used with the IES to make the calibration.

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[Summary provided by University of Rhode Island]