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Instrument: AMSR : Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer
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The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer ( AMSR )is one of the Japan
Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) mission instruments on board ADEOS-II which
was launched by H-IIA rocket on December 14, 2002. A similiar instument
(AMSR-E) was flown on NASA's Aqua spacecraft to be launched May 4, 2002. The
ADEOS-II spacecraft failed on October 24, 2003.

The AMSR is a 14-channel, 8- frequency passive microwave radiometer
which measures microwave radiation from the Earth's surface and
atmosphere. Frequencies of the AMSR are 6.9, 10.7, 18.7, 23.8, 36.5,
and 89.0 (horizontal and vertical polarization), and 50.3 and
52.8 GHz (vertical polarization only). AMSR has a large antenna
(2 meters, one of the largest), and a field of view of 7 km at
89 GHz and 60km at 6.9 GHz. It scans conically at an incidence angle
of 55 degrees to achieve a 1600 km swath width. Data are externally
calibrated by a cold sky temperature (2.7K) and a high-temperature
hot load.

Various geophysical parameters will be retrieved from AMSR data.
These parameters are primarily concerned with water (H2O), and
include total water vapor content,total liquid water content,
precipitation, snow water equivalent, soil moisture, sea surface
temperature (SST), sea surface wind speed, and sea ice extent.
The data set obtained by AMSR will support studies to understand the
water and energy cycle on a global scale.

AMSR features are summarized below.

1. The 2m-diameter antenna can measure SST and soil
moisture at 6 and 10 GHz.

2. With its higher spatial resolution, retrieval accuracy
will be improved for geophysical parameters such as
total water vapor content, total liquid water content,
and precipitation.

3. AMSR data will be transmitted to the EOC via a data
relay satellite every orbit, so they can be used by
meteorological agencies as initial conditions for
weather forecast models.

4. GLI and SeaWinds data are available, and a
combined use of AMSR, GLI and SeaWinds data will
improve retrieval accuracy.

Additional information available at