|Instrument: LIP : Lightning Instrument Package|
Earth Remote Sensing Instruments
Instrument Class: Passive Remote Sensing
Instrument Type: Spectrometers/Radiometers
Instrument Subtype: Imaging Spectrometers/Radiometers
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The Lightning Instrument Package (LIP) consists of an average of 6 rotating vane type electric field sensors, a dual channel conductivity probe, slow and fast antennas, and two optical sensors along with a central computer to record and monitor the instruments. The actual configuration varies depending on the specific platform’s resources. The electric field sensors are standard in each field campaign with the conductivity probe present in most experiments. The slow and fast antenna and optical sensors are included when the configuration allows. Each field mill incorporates self-calibration capabilities that reduce the time required to obtain a full aircraft calibration. In addition, the electric field signals are digitized at each mill and transmitted as a digital data stream, reducing signal noise and simplifying aircraft integration. The electric field mills and the conductivity probe are compact sensors, each weighing less than 10 lbs and provide the full vector components of the atmospheric electric field (i.e., Ex, Ey, Ez) around the storms overflown. The air conductivity probe determines the electrical conductivity of the atmosphere and can be used to derive storm electrical currents. Slow and fast antennas acquire lightning waveforms and provide a measure of total lightning. Dual multiple channel, calibrated, optical sensors are used to determine the intensity, duration, and waveform characteristics of the different types of lightning discharges from thunderstorms.