The U.S. Max '91 Program of Flare Research Campaigns
Project DescriptionScientific Objective and Current Program Status:
The scientific objective of Max '91 is to investigate the fundamental
unsolved problems of flare physics including the processes of energy
storage, release, and transport, and particle acceleration. To address
these central scientific issues, the Max '91 observing program utilizes
advanced instrumentation on spacecraft, rockets, and balloons, and at
ground-based observatories. It covers the electromagnetic spectrum from
radio through optical to X-rays and gamma-rays, and includes measurements of
neutrons and charged particles in interplanetary space. Max '91 is designed
to make major advances in solar flare physics through observations of high
energy flare phenomena and of the magnetic and thermal context in which they
take place. This will be achieved using recent advances in instrumentation
technology that now make it possible, for the first time, to observe several
of the most important processes on their intrinsic spatial, spectral and
The core space missions for Max '91 will be the Japanese Yohkoh
spacecraft, the Gamma Ray Observatory, and the spacecraft of the Global
Geospace Studies program, particularly WIND and CLUSTER. Instruments on
rockets will provide high-resolution images and spectra in the UV, EUV, and
soft X-rays during the preflare and thermal phases.
In addition to these space observations, NASA has a program of flights
of advanced hard X-ray and gamma-ray instrumentation capable of making many
types of observations not possible from these spacecraft or rockets. The
NASA Max '91 Solar Balloon Program consisted of long-duration balloon
flights in the Antarctic. The Berkeley Hard X-Ray and Gammay Ray
Spectrometer with Robert Lin as Primary Investigator obtained balloon data
during the December 1990 campaign.
Since MAX'91 is part of the FLARES 22 international campaign, many
ground-based observatories around the world has participated in monitoring
the Sun during the MAX-91 campaign periods.
Max '91 is a program of flare research to observe the sun during the
1991 solar maximum in several campaigns from instruments around the world
and in space. The following observing campaigns have been successfully
SMM, VLA, and Collaborative Observations
1990, June 16 - July 2
Energetic Solar Phenomena 1990
1990, December 20 - 1991, January 13
Target-of-Opportunity Campaign to Observe Active Region 6659
1991, June 6-17
Gamma-Ray, Hard X-Ray, and Neutron Studies of Solar Flares
1991, October 3-17
Multiwavelength/Multispacecraft Observations of Solar Flares
1992, January 6-24
Workshops have been held discussing campaign results, and their proceedings
are available from the program office on request.
The campaigns have been in a spirit of collaboration by scientists from
all continents and featured the coordinated use of ground based telescopes
in various spectral bands, and instruments on various spacecraft. The data
are held by the individual investigators. The Max '91 campaign distributes
brief descriptions of the participating instruments, coverage, and the names
and addresses of the investigators to contact.
The Max '91 program office organizes the campaigns and subsequent
meetings, provides support in the form of exchange of campaign information
before, during and after the campaign, and fosters development of new
instrumentation. After the campaign phase, which lasts from 1991-1994, a
three to four year phase of data analyses and interpretation will be part of
the Max '91 program. The Max '91 Program is an integral part of the
international FLARES 22 program so that the maximum scientific return can be
obtained with the limited available resources. Information is distributed
via electronic mail, electronic file transfers on SPAN and INTERNET, IUWDS
Ursigram - GEOALERTS, electronic bulletin board service, TELEX and FAX.
During the campaign daily Campaign Action notices are directly transmitted
to the participants. In addition, Max '91 workshops are held yearly.
Several specific research programs are sponsored in the USA by NSF and
NASA in the framework of this campaign. The campaign coordinator will
supply further information on obtaining on-line information.
Dr. Alan Kiplinger Email: SPAN > 9555::AKIPLINGER
NOAA Space Environment Laboratory SPAN > SELVAX::AKIPLINGER
Boulder, CO 80303 INTERNET > AKIPLINGER@184.108.40.206
Publications (Available on request):
(1) Newsletter: MAXFACTS, optionally available via e-mail.
Contact the Campaign Coordinator to be put on the mailing list.
(2) 'Summary of Campaign # 1, SMM, VLA, and Collaborative Observations
June 16 - July 2, 1989', Alan Kiplinger, Max '91 Coordinator
(3) 'Max '91 Workshop #2: Developments in Observations and Theory for Solar
Cycle 22', 8-9 June 1989, Robert M. Winglee and Brian R. Dennis, Eds.
(4) 'Flares 22/MAX '91 Summary of Campaigns,' Alan Kiplinger, 1992 (3
(5) 'Flares 22/ MAX '91 Campaign Summary,' Alan Kiplinger, 1992