Soviet/American Gas and Aerosol Expedition
Project DescriptionThe Soviet/American Gas and Aerosol (SAGA) Expeditions II and III were
to measure radiatively important trace species in the marine
environment. NOAA/CMDL participated in both cruises in 1987 and 1990.
The overall goal of SAGA II was to evaluate the sources,
distributions, and fates of climatically significant trace species in
the remote, marine environment. The studies were to focus on obtaining
latitudinal distributions of key gaseous and aerosol species from 50 deg N
to 40 deg S, defining the downwind plume from continental Asia over the
West Pacific and East Indian Oceans, and evaluating the air-sea
exchange of biogenic and anthropogenic trace gases. NOAH and the
Carbon Cycle Group were responsible for the organization of
NOAA/CMDL's effort and the measurement of a suite of rediatively
important trace species (RITS) in both the water and the atmosphere.
Five trace gases in the surface water and atmosphere of the West
Pacific and East Indian Oceans were measured by automated gas
chromatography from May through July 1987. The data included more than
1000 measurements each of N2O, F11, and F12 in the surface water and
in the atmosphere, and about 2000 measurements each of CH4 and CO2 in
the surface water and atmospheric boundary layer of the West
Pacific. In addition, over 600 measurements of dissolved N2O were
obtained from hydrocasts made along the entire 45000 km cruise track.
The ship Akademik Korolev, used in the SAGA II expedition, departed
Hilo, HI on 1 May 1987, to proceed towards the Kuril trench, headed
south along 160 deg E and 170 deg E meridians and terminated its first
leg in Wellington, New Zealand on 9 June 1987. Leg 2 ran south of
Australia then north along 90 deg E to Singapore between 12 June and 6
July. Leg 3 began on 9 July in Singapore and was essentially a
transect along 5 deg N turning up toward Hilo, HI at 180 deg E where
it arrived on 28 July 1987.
The overall goal of SAGA III was similar to the one of SAGA II. In
addition, main objectives were to evaluate the spatial and temporal
variability of trace gases across the interhemispheric tropical
convergence zone (ITCZ), to trace the zonal movement of the ITCZ, to
determine halocarbon saturation anomalies and to assess their use in
calculating air-sea transfer coefficients, to measure the flux of N2O
from equatorial waters, and to compare the results to those made in
1987, an El Nino year. As for SAGA II, the Akademik Korolev was used
during this expedition. The cruise began in February 1990 in Hilo, HI,
and crossed the equator seven times zig-zagging between 20 deg N and
15 deg S before ending in Singapore in April 1990.
Trace Gases in and Over the West Pacific and East Indian Oceans During
the El Nino-Southern Oscillation Event of 1987, J.H. Butler,
J.W. Elkins, C.M. Brunsen, K.B. Egan, T.M. Thompson, T.J. Convay,
B.D. Hall. NOAA Data Report ERL ARL-16, available from James Butler or
through NTIS, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161.
Oceanic Consumption of CH3CCl3: Implications for Tropospheric
OH. J.H. Butler, J.W. Elkins, T.M. Thompson, and
B.D. Hall. J. Geophys. Res. 96D, 22347-22355 (1991).
Third Soviet-American Gases and Aerosols (SAGA 3) Experiment: Overview
and meteorological and oceanographic conditions. Johnson, J.E.,
V.M. Koropalov, K.E. Pickering, A.M. Thompson, N. Bond, and
J.W. Elkins. J. Geophys. Res. 98D, 16893-16908, 1993
James H. Butler +1 303 497 6898 (tel) 6290 (fax) Email: email@example.com
James W. Elkins +1 303 497 6898 (tel) 6290 (fax) Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Data are available on the NOAA/CMDL/NOAH anonymous FTP account:
For more information see: