Summer Monsoon Experiment
Project DescriptionHindcasts for the Indian summer monsoons (ISMs) of 2002 and 2003 have been produced from an ensemble of numerical simulations performed with a global model by changing SST. Two sets of ensemble simulations have been produced without vegetation: (i) by prescribing the weekly observed SST from ECMWF (European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting) analyses, and (ii) by adding weekly SST anomalies (SSTA) of April to the climatological SST during the simulation period from May to August. For each ensemble, 10 simulations have been realized with different initial conditions that are prepared from ECMWF data with five each from April and May analyses of both the years. The predicted June-July monsoon rainfall over the Indian region shows good agreement with the GPCP (observed) pentad rainfall distribution when 5 member ensemble is taken from May initial conditions. The All-India June-July simulated rainfall time series matches favourably with the observed time series in both the years for the five member ensemble from May initial condition but drifts away from observation with April initial conditions. This underscores the role of initial conditions in the seasonal forecasting. But the model has failed to capture the strong intra-seasonal oscillation in July 2002. Heating over equatorial Indian Ocean for June 2002 in a particular experiment using 29th May 12 GMT as initial conditions shows some intra-seasonal oscillation in July 2002 rainfall, as in observation. Further evaluation of the seasonal simulations from this model is done by calculating the empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of the GPCP rainfall over India. The first four EOFs explain more than 80% of the total variance of the observed rainfall. The time series of expansion coefficients (principal components), obtained by projecting on the observed EOFs, provide a better framework for inter-comparing model simulations and their evaluation with observed data. The main finding of this study is that the All-India rainfall from various experiments with prescribed SST is better predicted on seasonal scale as compares to prescribed SST anomalies. This is indicative of a possible useful seasonal forecasts from a GCM at least for the case when monsoon is going to be good. The model responses do not differ much for 2002 and 2003 since the evolution of SST during these years was very similar, hence July rainfall seems to be largely modulated by the other feedbacks on the overall circulation.