Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition

Project Description
A number of governmental agencies cooperatively conduct Japanese
Antarctic research under the name of the Japanese Antarctic
Research Expedition (JARE). All decisions and approval of
proposals for research activities rest with the Headquarters of
JARE under the chairmanship of the Minister of Education,
Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. The Secretariat of the
JARE Headquarters belongs to the Science and International
Affairs Bureau, Monbukagakusho. The task of NIPR is to operate
JARE both for scientific programs and logistics, except the
transportation of personnel and materials by the icebreaker
Shirase from Japan to Antarctica. Scientific programs at Syowa
Station cover the following fields: upper atmosphere physics,
meteorology, seismology, gravimetry, geodesy and cartography,
oceanography, glaciology, geology, geography, marine and
terrestrial biology, and medical research. Programs offered on
board the Shirase include the following subjects: ionosphere,
meteorology, geomagnetism, gravimetry, and physical, chemical
and biological oceanography. All Japanese scientific stations
in Antarctica belong to NIPR. Syowa Station, the mother station
of JARE, was established in January 1957, at 69?00'S and
39?35'E on East Ongul Island, Lutzow-Holm Bay, East
Antarctica. The total floor area of the buildings has increased
from 184m? (3 buildings) in 1957 to 5,930.5m? (48 buildings)
and other outdoor facilities in 2001. Mizuho Station was
established in July 1970 along the geomagnetic meridian passing
through Syowa Station. It is located on the inland ice sheet at
70?42'S and 44?20'E (2,230m above sea level), about 270km
southeast of Syowa. After intermittent occupation, a few
members maintained year-round operation from 1976 to 1986,
making observations on meteorology, glaciology, and upper
atmosphere physics. It has been closed since 1987 and is
occasionally visited by some parties for meteorological and
glaciological observations. Asuka Station was established in
December 1984 on the ice sheet north of the Sor-Rondane
Mountains, at 71?32'S and 24?08'E (930m above sea level). Most
of the station facilities of about 450m? in total floor area
have become buried under snow. The principal role of the
station is to support field work in geology, geomorphology,
meteorite searches, glaciology and biology in the Sor-Rondane
Mountains. However, year-round observations including
meteorology, glaciology, solid earth geophysics, and upper
atmosphere physics were conducted between 1987 to 1991. Since
1991, the station activities have been suspended. Dome Fuji
Station equipped with 8 buildings, 407m? in total, was
established in 1995 at 77?19'01"S and 39?42'12"E (3,810m above
sea level) for the deep drilling program and atmospheric
observations. In recent years, environmental protection of
Antarctica and its unique ecosystems has become increasingly
important in planning and conducting Antarctic research. In
accordance with the protocol on environmental protection in the
Antarctic Treaty, appropriate procedures for environmental
protection are followed in the Japanese Antarctic Research
Expeditions. A new program for monitoring changes in global
and regional environments and ecosystems was started at Syowa
Station and its coastal and inland vicinity in 1997. The
monitoring programs include major parameters of atmospheric
glaciological, solid geophysical and biological changes, such
as atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, sea level,
population of penguins etc. Pollutants in seawater, ice or snow
and in animals, such as heavy metals and organic chlorinated
compounds derived from global and regional sources, are
occasionally measured. The monitoring of global environmental
change is an essential part of basic scientific programs as
described in the previous chapter.

For more information,
link to http://www.nipr.ac.jp/english/antarctic/t01_jare.html

[Summary provided by National Institute of Polar Research]