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51. Measurements of burst swimming performance of five species of Antarctic fish [K057_1998_1999_NZ_6]
Individuals of the Antarctic fish species Pagothenia borchgrevinki, Termatomus bernacchii, T. hansoni, T. Nicolai and Gymnodraco acuticeps were collected from several locations in McMurdo Sound and ...


52. Measurements of heart rate, blood pressure, ventral aortic pressure, systolic and diastolic pressure in the hearts of healthy and x-cell diseased Antarctic fish, Pagothenia borchgrevinki [K057_1998_1999_NZ_3]
The effect of x-cell disease on the heart of an Antarctic fish (Pagothenia borchgrevinki) was investigated in resting and exercised fish to examine the ability of the heart to supply blood to the ...


53. Measurements of metabolic rate, osmotic pressure and blood volume of pycnogonids from Antarctica [K057_1985_1986_NZ_2]
Several individuals of several species of pycnogonids (sea spiders) were obtained from the aquarium at McMurdo Station. Measurements of metabolic rate, osmotic pressure and blood volume was determined ...


54. Measurements of specific dynamic action (energy required to digest and assimilate food) via oxygen consumption and nitrogen excretion rates [K057_1998_1999_NZ_5]
Specific dynamic action (SDA) refers to the energy required to digest and assimilate food. This is measureable in terms of increased oxygen consumption and in some species of fish can represent a ...


55. Measurements of the effect of temperature and feeding on the blood flow through major arteries of the Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki [K057_2007_2008_NZ_2]
The Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki has been shown to be able to survive at raised temperatures. An increase in temperature causes an increase in metabolic rate which requires an increased ...


56. Measurements of the effects of temperature on venous blood pressure in the Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki [K057_2007_2008_NZ_3]
The Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki has been shown to be able to survive at raised temperatures. Cardiac filling in vertebrates is influenced by venous return which itself is influenced by ...


57. Measurements of the extent of hypertension (aortae blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen tension of the blood and morphometrics of the heart) in Antarctic fish affected with x-cell disease [K057_2003_2005_NZ_1]
The ability of x-cell affected fish to swim was determined using a swimming tunnel closed box respirometer and measuring maximum oxygen consumption and recovery post exercise. In severe cases of x-cell ...


58. Measurements of the fate of carbon dioxide in the blood of the Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki [K057_1998_1999_NZ_1]
Using purpose built tonometers, the carbon dioxide (CO2) dynamics in whole blood and plasma of the Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki was determined. The tonometers maintained samples of blood ...


59. Oxygen consumption rates and lactic acid levels of notothenioid fish to determine the exercise physiology of how a low water temperature has affected their ability to swim [K057_1985_1986_NZ_1]
Notothenioid fish live in a relatively constant temperature of -1.86?C. In order to survive at this temperature they have undergone several modifications to their biochemical makeup. The ability of ...


60. The characteristics of an isolated in situ Pagothenia borchgrevinki heart: heart rate and pressure, the effects of drugs, innervation of the heart and biochemical work of the blood and muscle tissue [K057_1996_1997_NZ_3]
The characteristics of an isolated in situ fish heart was investigated. A Pagothenia borchgrevinki fish was killed and its heart was exposed and isolated from its blood supply, but left in place ...


61. The control of blood flow and the effects of drugs on the contractile forces exerted by blood vessels in the gills of Pagothenia borchgrevinki [K057_1995_1996_NZ_1]
The control of blood flow through the gill of a notothenioid fish, Pagothenia borchgrevinki, was examined by isolating a gill arch and perfusing it with saline. The effects of drugs on the afferent ...


62. The control of blood flow through the gills and the effects of a number of vasoactive drugs on blood flow and oxygen uptake in two Antarctic fish, Pagothenia borchgrevinki and Trematomus bernacchii [K057_1996_1997_NZ_1]
The extracorporeal loop technique was used to measure oxygen levels of the blood, pre and post-branchial blood pressure, heart rate, blood flow and from these measurements stroke volume of the heart ...


63. The dynamics of red blood cell release and uptake by the spleen and the control of red blood cell swelling from the effects of stress in two species of Antarctic fish, Pagothenia borchgrevinki and Trematomus bernacchii [K057_1996_1997_NZ_2]
In vitro experimentation determined that red cell swelling is a consequence of activation of a Na+/H+ antiporter located on the red cell membrane. The antiporter is controlled by a ?-adrenoceptor ...


64. The effect of temperature and hypoxia on the metabolic rate and specific dynamic action of feeding of the giant nemertean worm Paraborlasia corrugatus [K057_2002_2003_NZ_1]
The giant nemertean worm Paraborlasia corrugatus is an important member of the benthic community where it is both an opportunistic scavenger and an active predator. Previous work has shown the animal ...


65. The effects of increased temperature on the physiological variable (heart rate, respiratory frequency, oxygen consumption, blood pressure, etc) of 2 Antarctic fish: Pagothenia borchgrevinki, Trematomus bernacchii [K057_2002_2003_NZ_2]
The effects of increased temperature on physiological variables in two Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki (pelagic) and Trematomus bernacchii (sedentary) was investigated using a new technique ...


66. The functioning of the spleen in the Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki [K057_1994_1995_NZ_2]
The spleen of notothenioids releases red blood cells during times of stress to increase oxygen uptake. The more red blood cells in the blood, the more viscous it is and the harder it is to pump around ...


67. The muscle histochemistry and characterization of different metabolic types in fin and trunk muscles investigated on Antarctic fish [K057_1983_1984_NZ_1]
The muscle histochemistry and characterization of different metabolic types in fin and trunk muscles was investigated on Antarctic fish. Frozen sections were cut and examined and interactions and ...


68. The rates of blood flow and oxygen uptake in the gills of the Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki [K057_1994_1995_NZ_1]
Blood flow and oxygen uptake at the gills of Antarctic fish was examined using an extracorporeal loop that links the blood supply of the fish between the ventral and dorsal aorta so that continuous ...


69. The respiratory and metabolic activity of a nematode worm found in the body cavity of Antarctic fish and Weddell seals [K057_1999_2000_NZ_1]
The respiratory ability of a nematode worm at different temperatures up to 38?C that live in the body cavity of Antarctic fish and ultimately with the final host being a Weddell seal was examined. ...


70. The role of the spleen in producing red blood cells during stress (measurements of haematocrit, haemoglobin, chloride, adrenaline conc., spleen mass) in Antarctic fish (Pagothenia borchgrevinki, Trematomus bernacchii) [K057_1991_1992_NZ_1]
The effects of stress (both hypoxia and exercise) on haematocrit in Antarctic fish was investigated with the aim to examine red cell release from the spleen under conditions of stress. The spleen ...


71. The swimming ability (mechanics, oxygen consumption, level of hormones, the effects of temperature, lactic acid production) of the Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki [K057_1998_2002_NZ_1]
Antarctic fish kept in the aquarium system in the wet lab were videotaped while swimming and the data was analysed frame by frame to determine swimming mechanics in these animals. Fish were also introduced ...


72. The vasoconstrictor response of blood vessels from two Antarctic fish Trematomus bernacchii and Dissostichus mawsoni and a temperate species Paranotothenia angustata [K057_1998_1999_NZ_4]
Available evidence suggests that animals living in extreme cold are unusual in having a non-catecholamine based stress response, relying more on neural than hormonal control of the cardiovascular ...


73. Obtaining action spectrum and biological weighting functions for UVR effects on larvae of a suite of Antarctic invertebrates, McMurdo Sound [K068_2004_2006_NZ_1]
The effect of UVR on biological systems is wavelength dependent. Action spectrum for DNA damage is an essential component of understanding the effects of increased UVB on a range of Antarctic invertebrate ...


74. The ability to photorepair UV damaged DNA and the rate of photoreactivation in Antarctic species compared with temperate and tropical species [K068_2004_2006_NZ_2]
Time course experimental exposure of the Antarctic sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeriembryos to UVR was carried out in a lab to examine the kinetics of UVR induced damage to DNA. Embryos (freshly fertilized ...


75. The ability to photorepair UV damaged DNA and the rate of photoreactivation in two Antarctic Starfish Odontaster validus and Odontaster meridionalis compared with a New Zealand species Odontaster benhami [K068_2004_2006_NZ_3]
Photorepair rates in New Zealand temperate species of echinoderms show a much higher DNA photorepair than the Antarctic species Sterechinus neumayeri. To examine the reason for low rates of DNA photorepair ...


76. A seismic refraction survey on sea ice near Butter Point, New Harbour, McMurdo Sound [K042_1980_1981_NZ_1]
A seismic refraction survey was conducted on sea ice near Butter Point to provide data on sediment thickness for possible further drilling and to investigate the cause of a reported gravity anomaly. ...


77. Investigation of the population structure (length, weight, sex ratio and distribution in the water column) of Euphausia crystallorophias [K014_1979_1980_NZ_2]
The population structure of Euphausia crystallorophias (krill) was investigated as part of a study of the under ice pelagic ecosystem in McMurdo Sound. On six occasions vertical hauls were made from ...


78. Pelagic ecosystem investigations of McMurdo Sound: plankton species composition and density, ocean environmental factors, levels of seston, bacteria analysis and ice algae composition [K014_1979_1980_NZ_1]
Comparisons of water column productivity and processes was completed by comparing 4 sites including on the edge of the McMurdo Ice Shelf some 12km west of Cape Armitage, off Scott Base on the east ...


79. Seafloor bathymetry and sediment sampling from the southwest corner of McMurdo Sound [K042_1982_1983_NZ_3]
A seafloor bathymetry and sediment sampling program was conducted in McMurdo Sound aboard the USGS GLACIER to take deep water samples not accessible from the sea ice, to sample off Granite Harbour ...


80. Seismic, bathymetry and piston coring transects to determine sediment movement in the Cape Royds area [K041_1986_1987_NZ_3]
Seismic, bathymetry and piston coring transects were undertaken in the Cape Royds area to determine how sediment was moving over the sea floor of this area to the 900m deep Erebus basin offshore. ...


81. The population dynamics and energetics of a species of pelagic Antarctic fish, Pagothenia borchgrevinki - length, weight, stomach content, parasites, fecundity, pattern of feeding, respiration experiments [K014_1979_1980_NZ_3]
The population dynamics and energetics of a species of pelagic Antarctic fish, Pagothenia borchgrevinki was studied. Fish were captured using silver lures with treble hooks and fish traps baited with ...


82. A mathmatical model of population dynamics to explain changes in biodiversity of microorganisms in ice covered marine environments [K043_2006_2007_NZ_1]
Physical, geographic and biological data were linked into a mathmatical model of population dynamics to integrate and explain the changes in biodiversity of phytoplankton, bacteria and cyanobacteria ...


83. Daily CTD cast measurements near the Erebus Glacier Tongue, McMurdo Sound [K131_2005_2006_NZ_2]
Fjords are a common feature in the coast of Antarctica, particularly in the Ross Sea region, yet little is known about the circulation within most of these fjords. The oceanography of Ferrar fjord ...


84. Deep and shallow CTD casts of turbulence at the sea ice-ocean interface in McMurdo Sound [K131_2005_2006_NZ_1]
Turbulence exists at the sea ice-ocean interface and therefore may have a key role in the latter stages of sea ice formation, including the forming of frazil ice. Both deep and shallow CTD casts were ...


85. Determination of the thermal conductivity of sea ice from measurements of ice temperature (and temperature gradients), salinity, ice microstructure and other environmental parameters [K131_2002_2004_NZ_1]
The polar oceans' sea ice cover strongly modifies ocean-atmosphere heat transfer. Despite its importance, existing circulation models and large scale sea ice models include overly simplistic parameterizations ...


86. Determining the influence of waves on the physical behaviour of the sea ice with mechanically generated waves [K131_2000_2002_NZ_1]
The interaction of the ocean wave field with the sea ice was investigated by creating a wave generating machine to generate waves which have clearly defined parameters such as amplitude and frequency. ...


87. Mathematical modelling of the optical behaviour sea ice in McMurdo Sound to determine the partitioning of radiant energy [K131_1998_1999_NZ_2]
Optical beam-spread profiles were measured on sea ice from McMurdo Sound, with a view to understanding the role of microstructure in the scattering of light in sea ice. These experiments were performed ...


88. Measurements of high amplitude/low cycle fatigue of sea ice in conjunction with the characteristic length of sea ice, temperature and salinity profiles and acoustic emissions [K131_1989_1998_NZ_1]
The high amplitude/low cycle fatigue properties of sea ice in situ at high strain were investigated by developing a cantilever system of sea ice beams and using hydraulic equipment to exercise these ...


89. Measurements of sea ice physical properties and ice strain and wave pattern generated by a load moving over sea ice near Tent Island, McMurdo Sound [K131_1985_1986_NZ_1]
An experiment designed to study, in detail, the wave pattern generated by a load moving over sea ice was conducted on a flat area of snow free, shore fast sea ice about 2km west of Tent Island in ...


90. Measurements of the effects of UV-B on sea ice algal growth and productivity [K131_1994_1998_NZ_4]
The effects of UV-B on the growth and productivity of sea ice algae was investigated with two experiments. The growth of sea ice algae was investigated in situ under four different light treatments ...


91. Oceanographic and sea ice measurements to determine the influence of platelet ice on the freezing of land fast sea ice [K131_2003_2004_NZ_1]
An understanding of the formation of platelet ice in McMurdo Sound and consequently its influence on the formation of land fast sea ice was investigated over a winter season when ice formation begins ...


92. Simultaneous measurements of ocean current, temperature and salinity measurements to determine the oceanography of McMurdo Sound [K131_2004_2007_NZ_1]
McMurdo Sound forms a natural and accessible laboratory for understanding the fundamental processes that underpin ice-ocean interactions. How changes in the sea ice sheet affect the physical oceanography ...


93. The thermal conductivity and diffusivity of first year sea ice measured as a temperature depth profile in developing sea ice during the winter months in McMurdo Sound [K131_1994_1998_NZ_2]
Measurements of heat flows and hence thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity in sea ice was measured in the absence of thermal radiation (i.e. sunlight, which dumps heat at depth in the ice and ...


94. The use of nuclear magnetic resonance to measure water content (a component of brine volume) and the diffusivity of liquid water in sea ice [K131_1994_1998_NZ_1]
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is able to discriminate signals arising from nuclei hosted by molecules in the solid state, from those in a liquid state and was therefore used to examine the state ...


95. Thick and thin sections and salinity and temperature profiles from natural refrozen and artificially refrozen sea ice cracks [K131_2001_2003_NZ_1]
Large marine organisms, specifically foraminifers and copepods, were collected from the sea ice, brine and water column from thin ice north of Beaufort Island at the beginning of the warming period ...


96. Measurements of the amount of UV and visible radiation falling onto sea ice and the effects of enhanced UV radiation levels on sea ice algae [K136_1991_1992_NZ_1]
Sea ice algae are speculated to be considerably vulnerable to the effects of enhanced UV from the ozone hole during the Antarctic spring. The amount of UV and visible radiation falling onto the sea ...


97. The breeding behaviour (territorial behaviour, male quality, movement and mating success) of male and female Weddell seals in relation to reproductive success during the breeding season [K027_1997_2001_NZ_1]
The breeding behaviour of the Weddell seal, Leptonychotes weddelli at the Turtle Rock colony in McMurdo Sound was studied over four breeding seasons. The aim was to quantify the male and female behaviour ...


98. Underwater recordings of Weddell seal calls recorded as a indication of male attributes, both inter and intra-sexual interactions during the breeding season in Weddell seals [K027_1997_2001_NZ_2]
To determine if male weddell seal calls reveal information on male attributes, recordings of major Weddell call types from all of the sampled males at the Turtlerock colony was correlated with measurements ...


99. Experiments to determine the extent to which the behaviour of individual faults alters the properties of the sea ice sheet as a whole [K131_1998_2001_NZ_1]
Sea ice beams were cut using a technique already developed to stress sea ice to fracture. Twenty two beams were cut in total. Mechanical measurements and characterisation of the resulting cracks was ...


100. Long term data from strain meters placed on the Erebus Glacier Tongue and surrounding sea ice measuring travelling flexural waves and strain measurements [K131_1983_1990_NZ_1]
Using a strain meter with a 500mm gauge length, the elastic and plastic strain of the Erebus Glacier tongue was measured as it moves in response to waves and swells present in the surrounding sea. ...


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