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1. Calculations of the Total Number of Electrons Along a Ray Path Extending from the Transmitter to the Receiver [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.ionosphere.G00566]
Ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) is the total number of electrons in a column of unit cross section extending from the transmitter to the receiver. TEC is calculated from observations of the ...


2. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) - Space Weather Sensors [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.ionosphere.G10022]
The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) maintains a constellation of sun-synchronous, near-polar orbiting satellites. The orbital period is 101 minutes and inclination is 99 degrees. The ...


3. Ionosonde Stations [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.ionosonde.G10145]
Ionograms are recorded tracings of reflected high frequency radio pulses generated by an ionosonde. Unique relationships exist between the sounding frequency and the ionization densities which can ...


4. Ionospheric Oblique Incidence Soundings by Satellites [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.ionosphere.G00563]
The oblique incidence sweep-frequency ionospheric sounding technique uses the same principle of operation as the vertical incidence sounder. The primary difference is that the transmitter and receiver ...


5. Ionospheric Values (Daily Work Sheets), F-Plots, Tabulations, Booklets, Catalogs, and Log Books [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.ionosonde.G00556]
These ionospheric data consist of scaling notes, equipment usage logs, and ionospheric values in the form of daily work sheets, F-Plots, tabulations, and booklets. The station notes list the equipment ...


6. Measurement of Incoherent Scatter [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.ionosphere.G00145]
For radio waves transmitted through the ionosphere with frequencies much larger (50 to 1300MHz) than the plasma frequency (up to 15MHz), very small-scale fluctuations of electron density will scatter ...


7. Measurements of the Absorptive Properties of the Ionosphere [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.ionosphere.G00569]
Absorption of radio waves occurs when electrons responding to the wave fields collide with and transfer energy to the neutral particles. A study of ionospheric absorption yields information on both ...


8. Solar Geophysical Data (SGD) Reports (1955-2009) [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.solar.solar_geophysical_data]
Solar-Geophysical Data (SGD) reports were a comprehensive compilation of many different kinds of observational data of the sun's activity and its effects on the Earth. Data from the worldwide network ...


9. DMSP OLS - Operational Linescan System [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.dmsp.G01119]
Visible and infrared imagery from DMSP Operational Linescan System (OLS) instruments are used to monitor the global distribution of clouds and cloud top temperatures twice each day. The archive data ...


10. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.dmsp.G10021]
The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic, hydrologic, cryospheric and near-Earth ...


11. Electron Density Profile Data Contains Virtual Height/Frequency Pairs from a Profile or Profiles (Composite Months) of Ionograms [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.ionosonde.G00146]
The Electron Density Profile, N(h), data set contains both individual profiles and composite months. The data consist of virtual height/frequency pairs from a profile or profiles (composite months) ...


12. Ionospheric Digital Database [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.ionosonde.G01257]
The ionosphere is that part of the Earth's atmosphere that results mainly from the photo ionization of the upper atmosphere. Traditionally, the following ionospheric regions and their approximate ...


13. Photographic Records Showing the Variations of the Virtual Height of Reflection as a Function of the Radio Frequency [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.ionosonde.G00551]
The standard (analog) ionosonde produces photographic records known as ionograms, which show the variations of the virtual height of reflection as a function of the radio frequency. The frequency ...


14. Worldwide Hourly Values of Ionospheric Characteristics: foF2, M(3000)F2, hF2,FoF1, M(3000)F1, hF, FoE, hE, foE2, hE2, foEs, fbEs, fmI, and FxI [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.ionosonde.G00004]
The ionosphere is that part of the Earth's atmosphere that results mainly from the ionizing effect of Solar electromagnetic radiation. For poleware latitudes, the ionizing effect of incident energetic ...


15. Hourly scaled ionospheric characteristics for Macquarie Island, Mawson and Casey. [IPS_IONOSONDE]
Routine high latitude observations made in Antarctica form a climatological baseline of the ionosphere extending back to 1958 at Mawson and Casey, and for almost two decades at Davis and Macquarie ...


16. Ionospheric Vertical Sounding [NICT_IONOSONDE_OBS]
Virtual height profile of ionospheric electron density at Syowa Station, East Antarctica


17. NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Science Data Products [SDO_DIF_PLACEHOLDER]
[Text Source: The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Project Home page, http://sdo.gsfc.nasa.gov/mission/about.php ] SDO: The Solar Dynamics Observatory is the first ...


18. Energetic Particles: Acceleration, Composition and Transport (EPACT) Investigation on WIND [WIND_EPACT]
The main purpose of the Wind spacecraft is to measure the incoming solar wind, magnetic fields and particles, although early on it will also observe the Earth's foreshock region. Wind, together with ...


19. CEDAR Incoherent Scatter Radar Data Base from NCAR/HAO [INCOHERENT_SCATTER_RADAR]   PARENT DIF
The Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) at the National Center for Atmospheric Research/High Altitude Observatory (NCAR/HAO) incoherent-radar data base was established ...


20. Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) Database at NCAR/HAO [CEDAR_NCAR_HAO]   CHILD DIFs
The Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric regions (CEDAR) is a program sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF) designed to enhance the capability of ground-based instruments ...


21. Upper Atmospheric and Ionospheric Data [IPST_UMD_ANTARCTIC_IONOS]
The projects that operate from instrumentation at South Pole Station, and at the Arrival Heights Laboratory at McMurdo Station, examine natural phenomena occurring in the earth's atmosphere, ...


22. Upper Atmospheric and Ionospheric Data [SIENA_ANTARCTIC_IONOS]
The projects that operate from instrumentation at South Pole Station, and at the Arrival Heights Laboratory at McMurdo Station, examine natural phenomena occurring in the earth's atmosphere, ...


23. Space Physics, Solar Physics and Astronomy Data from Space Physics Data System [SPDS-General]
The Space Physics Data System (SPDS) ( http://spdf.gsfc.nasa.gov/ ) serves the four science disciplines encompassed within the programs of the NASA Space Physics Division, namely: ...


24. Interplanetary Monitoring Platform (IMP-8) Solar Plasma Electrostatic Analyzer Data [IMP8_LANL]
IMP-8 (IMP-J) was launched by NASA on October 26, 1973 to measure the magnetic fields, plasmas, and energetic charged particles (e.g., cosmic rays) of the Earth's magnetotail ...


25. EQUATOR-S: Earth's Equatorial Magnetosphere Data [EQUATOR-S]
EQUATOR-S is a low-cost mission designed to study the Earth's equatorial magnetosphere out to distances of 67000 km and it forms an element of the closely-coordinated ...


26. Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) Particle Composition and Flux Browse Data [ACE_PARTCLE_FLUXES]
The Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) is an Explorer mission that is being managed by the Office of Space Science Mission and Payload Development Division of the National Aeronautics ...


27. Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) Solar Wind Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (SWEPAM) Level 2 Data [ACE_SWEPAM_LEVEL2]
The Solar Wind Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (SWEPAM) measures the solar wind plasma electron and ion fluxes (rates of particle flow) as functions of direction and energy. These ...


28. Geoscientific and Engineering Models at NASA's National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) [ENVIRONET]
The National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center has many space physics and space weather models available on: - Gavitation and Geopotential Models - Atmospheric ...


29. SOHO/Comprehensive Suprathermal and Energetic Particle Analyzer (COSTEP) Data Archive [SOHO_COSTEP]
COSTEP addresses scientific objectives related to the following phenomena: * Steady state processes in the solar atmosphere * Energy release and particle acceleration in the solar atmosphere ...


30. Wind and Temperature Intermediate Data from the Wind and Temperature Spectrometer (WATS) Experiment on Dynamics Explorer-2 [DE_WATS_1]
The Wind and Temperature (WATS) experiment on the Dynamics Explorer-2 (DE-2) spacecraft consists of a closed source neutral mass spectrometer with two rectangular baffles which are swept across the ...


31. Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) Data Archive at NASA/NSSDC and SWRI [IMAGE]
The Imager for Magnetosphere-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) mission produced the first comprehensive global images of the plasma populations in the inner magnetosphere. IMAGE data are archived ...


32. Polar Sun-Earth Connection Mission Data Archive at NASA/GSFC [NASA_POLAR]
The Polar spacecraft was launched on February 24, 1996, to obtain data from both high- and low-altitude perspectives of this active region of geospace. High above the poles the particles of the solar ...


33. SOHO/Charge, Element, and Isotope Analysis System (CELIAS) Data Archive [SOHO_CELIAS]
The CELIAS instrument is designed to study the composition of the solar wind (SW) and of solar and interplanetary energetic particles on SOHO. SOHO is a project of international cooperation between ...


34. SOHO/Energetic and Relativistic Nuclei and Electron (ERNE) Data Archive [SOHO_ERNE]
The Energetic and Relativistic Nuclei and Electron (ERNE) Sensor Unit (ESU) has two energetic particle sensors: LED and HED. ERNE will investigate the solar atmosphere by detecting charged particles ...


35. COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere from NSSDC [CIRA_MODEL]
The COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA) provides empirical models of atmospheric temperature and densities as recommended by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Since the early ...


36. Lidar Measurements in the CEDAR Data Base at NCAR/HAO [CEDAR_LIDAR]   PARENT DIF
The Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) Data Base at NCAR/HAO holds data collected from Lidar measurements. Basic parameters measured include photocounts, relative neutral ...


37. Theoretical and Empirical Models in the CEDAR Data Base at NCAR/HAO [CEDAR_MODELS]   PARENT DIF
The Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) Data Base at NCAR/HAO holds information on theoretical models and source code for several empirical models. Theoretical models ...


38. Hourly-scaled ionospheric data from Vernadsky station [NASC_VERN_IONOSONDE]
Ionosphere sounding is carried out using the semi-automatic station ISP-42. This is a radar system for impulse radio sounding of the ionosphere in the height interval up to 800 km at frequencies 1.0-22.6 ...


39. Ionospheric vertical sounding [Ionospheric_vertical_sounding]
Ionospheric observations, using radio techniques, are an important part of the aeronomic studies that may be carried out in polar zones where the peculiarity of the physical phenomena, due to the ...


40. Solar Wind Experiment (SWE) on WIND [WIND_SWE]
The main purpose of the Wind spacecraft is to measure the incoming solar wind, magnetic fields and particles, although early on it will also observe the Earth's foreshock region. Wind, together with ...


41. The SWICS/MASS/STICS (SMS) Instrument Package on WIND [WIND_SMS]
The main purpose of the Wind spacecraft is to measure the incoming solar wind, magnetic fields and particles, although early on it will also observe the Earth's foreshock region. Wind, together with ...


42. 3-D Plasma and Energetic Particle Investigation on WIND [WIND_3DP]
The main purpose of the Wind spacecraft is to measure the incoming solar wind, magnetic fields and particles, although early on it will also observe the Earth's foreshock region. Wind, together with ...


43. CLUSTER-II Solar-Terrestrial Data [CLUSTER-II]
Cluster II is part of an international collaboration to investigate the physical connection between the Sun and Earth. Flying in a tetrahedral (triangular pyramid) formation, the four spacecraft collect ...


44. Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite Data at NASA/NSSDC [CRRES]
The Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) was launched into a geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO) for a nominal three-year mission to investigate fields, plasmas, and energetic ...


45. Interplanetary Monitoring Platform (IMP-8) Charged Particle Measurement Experiment (CPME) Data [IMP8_JHUCPME]
IMP-8 (IMP-J) was launched by NASA on October 26, 1973 to measure the magnetic fields, plasmas, and energetic charged particles (e.g., cosmic rays) of the Earth's magnetotail and magnetosheath and ...


46. Interplanetary Monitoring Platform (IMP-8) Goddard Medium Energy (GME) Experiment Data [IMP8_GSFC]
IMP-8 (IMP-J) was launched by NASA on October 26, 1973 to measure the magnetic fields, plasmas, and energetic charged particles (e.g., cosmic rays) of the Earth's magnetotail and magnetosheath and ...


47. Interplanetary Monitoring Platform (IMP-8) Low-Energy Proton and Electron Differential Energy Analyzer (LEPEDEA) Data [IMP8_IOWA]
IMP-8 (IMP-J) was launched by NASA on October 26, 1973 to measure the magnetic fields, plasmas, and energetic charged particles (e.g., cosmic rays) of the Earth's magnetotail and magnetosheath and ...


48. Interplanetary Monitoring Platform (IMP-8) Solar Plasma Faraday Cup Data [IMP8_MIT]
IMP-8 (IMP-J) was launched by NASA on October 26, 1973 to measure the magnetic fields, plasmas, and energetic charged particles (e.g., cosmic rays) of the Earth's magnetotail and magnetosheath and ...


49. Atmospheric Drag Density Data from AD-A, AD-B, and AD-C [AD-ABC]
This experiment was designed to determine nonsystematic changes of upper atmospheric density by conducting studies of the drag on a 3.6-m diameter, low-density sphere caused by short-term variations ...


50. HWM Neutral Wind Model from NSSDC [HWM87_MODEL]
The HWM87 is an empirical model of the horizontal neutral wind in the upper thermosphere analogous to the MSIS model for neutral temperature and density. It is based on wind data obtained from the ...


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