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1. Optical sky brightness spectra from the Nigel experiment at Dome A, Antarctica [AAS_4011_DomeA_Sky_Brightness]
The "Nigel" spectrometer was operated at Dome A, Antarctica, over the 2009 Austral winter. As part of the PLATO (PLATeau Observatory) astronomical instrument suite, Nigel was designed as a site-testing ...


2. LBA-ECO ND-07 Trace Gas Fluxes Under Multiple Land Uses, Brazil: 1999-2004 [LBA_ND07_TRACE_GAS_LAND_USE]
This data set reports on soil-atmosphere fluxes of trace carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, and nitric oxide (CO2, CO, N2O, NO) under various natural and manipulated land use conditions. ...


3. GOES Space Environment Monitor, Energetic Particles [gov.noaa.ngdc.sem.goes_eps_g00037]
Solid state detectors with pulse height discrimination measure proton, alpha-particle, and electron fluxes. E1 and I1 channels are responding primarily to trapped outer-zone particles. The I2 channel ...


4. GOES Space Environment Monitor, Magnetometer [gov.noaa.ngdc.sem.goes_mag_g00038]
Three orthogonal flux-gate magnetometer elements, (spinning twin fluxgate magnetometer prior to GOES-8) provide magnetic field measurements in three mutually perpendicular components: HP, HE and HN. ...


5. GOES Space Environment Monitor, X-ray Sensor [gov.noaa.ngdc.sem.goes_xrs_g00036]
Solar x-ray flux data.


6. GOES-12 Solar X-ray Imager Archive [gov.noaa.ngdc.sem.goes_sxi_g02157]
The GOES Solar X-ray Imager is integrated into the GOES-12 satellite, whose primary mission is to provide Earth-weather monitoring. The SXI is operated by NOAA's National Environmental Satellite, ...


7. POES Space Environment Monitor, Energetic Particles [gov.noaa.ngdc.sem.poes_sem_g00188]
The TIROS/NOAA satellite series, also known as POES, is designed to meet the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's need for operational, remote sensing products for numerical weather and ...


8. Satellite Anomalies Due to Environment [gov.noaa.ngdc.sem.sat_anom_g00937]
These events range from minor operational problems to permanent spacecraft failures. Australia, Canada, Germany, India, Japan, United Kingdom, and the United States have contributed data. This data ...


9. Solar X-Ray Flare Listings [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.solar.solar-features_solar-flares_x-rays]
Listings and characterizations of solar x-ray flares


10. Solar/Space Environment Data (Satellites) [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.swx.space-environment]
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) monitors the geospace and solar environments using a variety of space weather sensors aboard its fleet of operational satellites.


11. Space Environment Modeling [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.swx.space_environment_modeling]
Collection includes presentation materials and outputs from operational space environment models produced by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) and other related model datasets. Included ...


12. Space Weather Products [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.swx.space_weather_products]
Collection includes a variety of space weather datasets from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and from the World Data Service for Geophysics, Boulder.


13. Calculations of the Total Number of Electrons Along a Ray Path Extending from the Transmitter to the Receiver [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.ionosphere.G00566]
Ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) is the total number of electrons in a column of unit cross section extending from the transmitter to the receiver. TEC is calculated from observations of the ...


14. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) - Space Weather Sensors [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.ionosphere.G10022]
The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) maintains a constellation of sun-synchronous, near-polar orbiting satellites. The orbital period is 101 minutes and inclination is 99 degrees. The ...


15. Flare Patrol [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.solar.solar-features_solar-flares_patrol]
The H-alpha Flare Patrol identifies time periods each day when the sun is being continuously monitored by select ground-based solar observatories.


16. H-alpha Flare Index [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.solar.solar-features_solar-flares_index]
Daily index of solar flare activity.


17. H-alpha Flare Listings [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.solar.solar-features_solar-flares_h-alpha]
A short-lived sudden increase in the intensity or radiation emitted in the neighborhood of sunspots monitored in H-alpha.


18. Ionosonde Stations [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.ionosonde.G10145]
Ionograms are recorded tracings of reflected high frequency radio pulses generated by an ionosonde. Unique relationships exist between the sounding frequency and the ionization densities which can ...


19. Ionospheric Oblique Incidence Soundings by Satellites [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.ionosphere.G00563]
The oblique incidence sweep-frequency ionospheric sounding technique uses the same principle of operation as the vertical incidence sounder. The primary difference is that the transmitter and receiver ...


20. Ionospheric Values (Daily Work Sheets), F-Plots, Tabulations, Booklets, Catalogs, and Log Books [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.ionosonde.G00556]
These ionospheric data consist of scaling notes, equipment usage logs, and ionospheric values in the form of daily work sheets, F-Plots, tabulations, and booklets. The station notes list the equipment ...


21. Measurement of Incoherent Scatter [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.ionosphere.G00145]
For radio waves transmitted through the ionosphere with frequencies much larger (50 to 1300MHz) than the plasma frequency (up to 15MHz), very small-scale fluctuations of electron density will scatter ...


22. Measurements of the Absorptive Properties of the Ionosphere [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.ionosphere.G00569]
Absorption of radio waves occurs when electrons responding to the wave fields collide with and transfer energy to the neutral particles. A study of ionospheric absorption yields information on both ...


23. Ovation Prime Real-Time [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.ionosphere.OPRT]
The Ovation Prime Real-Time (OPRT) product is a real-time forecast and nowcast model of auroral power and is an operational implementation of the work by Newell et al (2009). OPRT is run every 5 minutes ...


24. Photographs of the Sun in Calcium II K - Chromospheric Observations [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.solar.solar-imagery_chromosphere_calcium]
This dataset consists of full-disk images of the sun in Calcium (Ca) II K wavelength (393.4 nm). Ca II K imagery reveal magnetic structures of the sun from about 500 to 2000 km above the photosphere ...


25. Photographs of the Sun in Hydrogen Alpha - Chromospheric Observations [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.solar.solar-imagery_chromosphere_h-alpha]
Collection includes a variety of H-alpha photographic datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. Solar observations in hydrogen-alpha (656.3 nm) ...


26. Solar Features [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.solar.solar-features]
Collection includes a variety of solar feature datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide.


27. Solar Filaments [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.solar.solar-features_prominences-filaments_filaments]
Filaments are formed in magnetic loops that hold relatively cool, dense gas suspended above the surface of the Sun (David Hathaway/NASA)


28. Solar Geophysical Data (SGD) Reports (1955-2009) [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.solar.solar_geophysical_data]
Solar-Geophysical Data (SGD) reports were a comprehensive compilation of many different kinds of observational data of the sun's activity and its effects on the Earth. Data from the worldwide network ...


29. Solar Imagery - Boulder Neutral Line Drawings [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.solar.solar_imagery-boulder_neutral_line_drawings]
Synoptic Analysis Drawings, also known as Neutral Line (NL) drawings, are produced each day by space weather forecaster at the NOAA National Weather Service (NWS) Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC). ...


30. Solar Imagery - Photographs and Drawings [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.solar.solar-imagery]
Collection includes a variety of solar photographic and illustrated datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. Daily solar observations range from ...


31. Solar Imagery - Photosphere - Sunspot Drawings - McMath-Hulbert Observatory [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.solar.solar-imagery_photosphere_sunspot-drawings_mcmath]
The McMath-Hulbert Observatory is a decommissioned solar observatory in Lake Angelus, Michigan, USA. It was established in 1929 as a private observatory by father and son Francis Charles McMath and ...


32. Solar Imagery - Photosphere - White Light [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.solar.solar-imagery_photosphere_white-light]
Collection consists of white-light, full-disk images of the sun provided by various solar observatories and institutions.


33. Solar Images - White Light - ISOON [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.solar.solar-images_white-light_isoon]
The Improved Solar Observing Optical Network (ISOON) project is a collaboration between the Air Force Research Laboratory Space Vehicles Directorate and the National Solar Observatory. ISOON is a ...


34. Solar Indices - A variety of indices related to solar activity [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.solar.solar-indices]
Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. [SolarIndices A]


35. Solar Prominences [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.solar.solar-features_prominences-filaments_prominences]
A prominence is a large, bright features extending outward from the sun's surface, often in a loop shapce (Wikipedia)


36. Solar Radio [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.solar.solar-features_solar-features_solar-radio]
Scientists monitor the structure of the solar corona, the outer most regions of the Sun's atmosphere, using radio waves (100?s of MHz to 10?s of GHz). Variations in the radiowave spectrum reveal characteristics ...


37. Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.solar.solar-features_solar-flares_sids]
A Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance (SID) is any of several radio propagation anomalies due to ionospheric changes resulting from solar or geophysical events.


38. Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances (SID) [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.ionosphere.G00581]
Sudden ionospheric disturbances (SID) are caused by solar flare enhanced X-rays in the 1 to 10 angstrom range. Solar flares can produce large increases of ionization in the D-region of the ionosphere ...


39. US-Total Electron Content Product (USTEC) [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.ionosphere.G10009]
The US Total Electron Content (US-TEC) product is designed to specify TEC over the Continental US (CONUS) in near real-time. The product uses a Kalman Filter data assimilation model, described in ...


40. DMSP OLS - Operational Linescan System [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.dmsp.G01119]
Visible and infrared imagery from DMSP Operational Linescan System (OLS) instruments are used to monitor the global distribution of clouds and cloud top temperatures twice each day. The archive data ...


41. DMSP SSMT/2 - Atmospheric Water Vapor Profiler [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.dmsp.G10018]
The SSM/T-2 sensor is a five channel, total power microwave radiometer with three channels situated symmetrically about the 183.31 GHz water vapor resonance line and two window channels. This instrument ...


42. DST Indices - Reflection Variations in the Magnetospheric Tail Current and Field-aligned Currents in the Magnetosphere [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.indices.G00587]
The file is comprised of monthly DST indices. These indices are derived from a network of eight stations in the equatorial latitudes. Hourly DST indices provide an index of geomagnetic activity as ...


43. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.dmsp.G10021]
The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic, hydrologic, cryospheric and near-Earth ...


44. Electron Density Profile Data Contains Virtual Height/Frequency Pairs from a Profile or Profiles (Composite Months) of Ionograms [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.ionosonde.G00146]
The Electron Density Profile, N(h), data set contains both individual profiles and composite months. The data consist of virtual height/frequency pairs from a profile or profiles (composite months) ...


45. Geomagnetic Observatory Annual Means Data [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.geomag.G10118]
The National Geophysical Data Center / World Data Center, Boulder maintains an active database of worldwide geomagnetic observatory data. Historically, magnetic observatories were established to monitor ...


46. Ionospheric Digital Database [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.ionosonde.G01257]
The ionosphere is that part of the Earth's atmosphere that results mainly from the photo ionization of the upper atmosphere. Traditionally, the following ionospheric regions and their approximate ...


47. Photographic Records Showing the Variations of the Virtual Height of Reflection as a Function of the Radio Frequency [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.ionosonde.G00551]
The standard (analog) ionosonde produces photographic records known as ionograms, which show the variations of the virtual height of reflection as a function of the radio frequency. The frequency ...


48. Values of Kp Indices, Ap Indices, Cp Indices, C9 Indices, Sunspot Number, and 10.7 cm Flux [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.indices.G00191]
This data file consists of Kp indices, Ap indices, Cp indices, C9 indices, sunspot number, and 10.7 cm flux. The most often requested parameter of this file are the Kp indices. These planetary indices ...


49. Values of the Earth's Magnetic Field Components X, Y, and Z Recorded in Finland [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.geomag.G00414]
This data set was generated by the Finish Academy of Science from magnetic data collected during the International Magnetospheric Study, 1976-1978. The data were collected by an array of digital magnetometers ...


50. Worldwide Hourly Values of Ionospheric Characteristics: foF2, M(3000)F2, hF2,FoF1, M(3000)F1, hF, FoE, hE, foE2, hE2, foEs, fbEs, fmI, and FxI [gov.noaa.ngdc.stp.ionosonde.G00004]
The ionosphere is that part of the Earth's atmosphere that results mainly from the ionizing effect of Solar electromagnetic radiation. For poleware latitudes, the ionizing effect of incident energetic ...


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