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51. The Ross Sea Iceberg Project [K201_1983_1989_NZ_1]
The Ross Sea Iceberg Project aims to determine the distribution, sources, movement and sizes of icebergs in the Ross Sea. These characteristics have previously not been well known but are important ...


52. Measurements of the tide level, current, temperature and salinity of McMurdo Sound and examination of the biological biomass in the water column [K007_1970_1974_NZ_1]
A measurement of the tides and currents in McMurdo Sound was conducted over several seasons. Current measurements were first made in McMurdo Sound by Hodgson (1907) during the stay of the Discovery ...


53. CTD casts off Pram Point to determine the internal wave structure under the shore fast ice of McMurdo Sound [K053_1993_1994_NZ_4]
The internal wave structure under the shore fast ice of McMurdo Sound was surveyed. An internal wave is a wave propagating along a density stratification in the water mass. The discontinuity in density ...


54. Measurement of ocean waves and ice coupled waves near a fast ice boundary, McMurdo Sound [K137_1990_1993_NZ_1]
Ocean waves interact with Antarctic ice. Pack ice acts as a barrier to wave penetration, and attenuates the propagating waves. The presence of fast ice changes the nature of the wave interaction so ...


55. The ecology and physiology of Antarctic invertebrates at Cape Bird [K140_1997_2000_NZ_1]
The effect of temperature on the terrestrial arthropod fauna at Cape Bird was investigated. The work was carried out over three field season and the site was visited for three periods during each ...


56. Scott Base Tide Gauge records since 2001 [K042_2001_2008_NZ_1]
A sea level recorder and barometer was installed at Scott Base in January 2001 initially to support oceanographic and hazards research (including tsunami) and to support hydrographic surveying. The ...


57. Comparison of the structure and diversity of the benthic community of Cape Bird with Cape Hallett and Perseverance Harbour, Campbell Island [K014_1970_1971_NZ_4]
A series of quantitative sea bottom grab samples were collected from the benthos in the area of McDonald Beach and north to the ice cliffs, Cape Bird. Samples were collected from between 25 and 200m ...


58. Measurements of spectral transmission and backscattering of light in first year sea ice, Tent Island, McMurdo Sound [K132_1985_1987_NZ_1]
In situ measurements of the the spectral transmission and backscattering of light was conducted on first year ice to characterise the optical properties of sea ice. The average scattering length and ...


59. The distribution of path lengths taken by light as it scatters through sea ice [K132_1990_1993_NZ_1]
The spatial spreading of light introduced at a point on the surface of the ice and the temporal spreading of a brief pulse of light injected at a point was measured to clarify the details of the interaction ...


60. The structure (temperature, salinity, density and heat capacity) and transmissivity of sea ice [K132_1989_1990_NZ_1]
The transparency of sea ice to UV radiation was measured to determine the effects of enhanced UV levels on Antarctic life. The under ice radiance is controlled by the transmission of the sea ice to ...


61. Analysis of foraminiferal populations in sediment samples from McMurdo Sound in relation to sediment type, ecological factors and bathymetry [K042_1981_1982_NZ_1]
Sea floor sediments of McMurdo Sound were sampled to obtain material suitable for detailed analysis of foraminiferal populations and their relationships to sediment type and ecological factors. Foraminifera ...


62. Glacial movement and sedimentation rate of the Mackay Glacier, Granite Harbour [K042_1982_1983_NZ_1]
Granite Harbour can be considered a 'closed basin' which collects sediment deposited from the Mackay Glacier Tongue. Study of this sedimentation system enables a more precise interpretation of the ...


63. Investigation of the cardiovascular control of notothenioid fish (Pagothenia borchgrevinki and Trematomus bernacchii) [K057_1992_1993_NZ_1]
It has been shown that under stress, red blooded notothenioids increase their haematocrit by contracting the spleen thus releasing red blood cells and increasing the heart rate. The increase in heart ...


64. The role of the spleen in producing red blood cells during stress (measurements of haematocrit, haemoglobin, chloride, adrenaline conc., spleen mass) in Antarctic fish (Pagothenia borchgrevinki, Trematomus bernacchii) [K057_1991_1992_NZ_1]
The effects of stress (both hypoxia and exercise) on haematocrit in Antarctic fish was investigated with the aim to examine red cell release from the spleen under conditions of stress. The spleen ...


65. Do density driven bottom currents originate from beneath the Mackay Glacier Tongue in Granite Harbour? Data from current meters, bathymetry profile and sediment trap samples [K042_1988_1989_NZ_1]
Previous studies suggest that a current originating from beneath the Mackay Glacier Tongue in Granite Harbour could contribute to the deposits of mud flooring the deeper parts of McMurdo Sound and ...


66. Obtaining action spectrum and biological weighting functions for UVR effects on larvae of a suite of Antarctic invertebrates, McMurdo Sound [K068_2004_2006_NZ_1]
The effect of UVR on biological systems is wavelength dependent. Action spectrum for DNA damage is an essential component of understanding the effects of increased UVB on a range of Antarctic invertebrate ...


67. The ability to photorepair UV damaged DNA and the rate of photoreactivation in Antarctic species compared with temperate and tropical species [K068_2004_2006_NZ_2]
Time course experimental exposure of the Antarctic sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeriembryos to UVR was carried out in a lab to examine the kinetics of UVR induced damage to DNA. Embryos (freshly fertilized ...


68. The degree that UV-B absorbing compounds provide UV-R protection in embryos and larvae of the sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri: A comparison with adults [K068_2002_2003_NZ_1]
The degree that UV-B absorbing compounds provide UV-R protection was examined in four early developmental stages of the sea urchine Sterechinus neumayeri from Cape Armitage, McMurdo Sound. Adult Sterechinus ...


69. The installation of a tide gauge and a meteorological mast at Cape Roberts [K042_1988_1990_NZ_1]
A tide gauge was installed on the fast ice on the eastern side of Cape Roberts and recorded continuously for fifty days (19 November, 1988 to 8 January, 1989) - first continuous tide record from the ...


70. A feasibility study of marine investigations at Cape Bird: Plankton sampling, water temperature, conductivity and chlorophyll content [K014_1969_1970_NZ_1]
On arrival at Cape Bird it was found that the pack ice had broken early and sampling had to be limited to inshore waters from ice piers with water depths never greater than about 20 feet. Plankton ...


71. A general benthic survey of the Cape Bird region: distribution of sediment types, boundaries of faunal zones, bathymetry and current patterns [K014_1970_1971_NZ_5]
A survey of the region from the ice face to McDonald Beach and to a depth of about 300 meters with regard to distribution of sediment types, boundaries of faunal zones and the general bathymetry of ...


72. Food chain investigations at White Island: seal survey, seasonal trends in phytoplankton populations, ocean environmental factors, zooplankton biomass and fish diet, age and growth studies [K014_1976_1977_NZ_1]
A population of Weddell Seals at White Island (some 20km from the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf) was/is thought to be a sub-population that does not migrate to the pack ice in the non-breeding season ...


73. Pelagic ecosystem investigations of McMurdo Sound: plankton species composition and density, ocean environmental factors, levels of seston, bacteria analysis and ice algae composition [K014_1979_1980_NZ_1]
Comparisons of water column productivity and processes was completed by comparing 4 sites including on the edge of the McMurdo Ice Shelf some 12km west of Cape Armitage, off Scott Base on the east ...


74. Plankton investigations in the Ross Sea in relation to seawater parameters [K014_1970_1971_NZ_6]
Plankton and water was sampled from a site at Cape Bird and the parameters measured include: salinity, light, temperature, biomass of zooplankton and phytoplankton, species identification of zooplankton ...


75. Production and succession investigations of phytoplankton and zooplankton from onshore, tidecrack, ice floes and epibenthic samples at Cape Bird [K014_1977_1978_NZ_1]
The phytoplankton and zooplankton was samples at Cape Bird to determine seasonal trends in the populations structure of onshore communities, determine if a separate tidecrack community exists, the ...


76. Sea ice cracks, sea ice movement and tide movements of Granite Harbour [K042_1982_1983_NZ_4]
Active spreading sea ice cracks were found in the sea ice of Granite Harbour over several seasons. The cracks would prove difficult for heavy surface transport required for a drill rig site establishment. ...


77. Seafloor bathymetry and sediment sampling from the southwest corner of McMurdo Sound [K042_1982_1983_NZ_3]
A seafloor bathymetry and sediment sampling program was conducted in McMurdo Sound aboard the USGS GLACIER to take deep water samples not accessible from the sea ice, to sample off Granite Harbour ...


78. The modern sedimentation regime at the snout of the Ferrar Glacier, New Harbour [K042_1985_1986_NZ_1]
The modern sedimentation regime at the snout of the Ferrar Glacier was investigated for comparison with the upper sediments cored in the CIROS-2 hole and to determine the modern sedimentation processes ...


79. CTD casts and ADCP measurements from New Harbour, McMurdo Sound [K131_2005_2006_NZ_3]
Little is known of the heat and mass exchange that controls the extent and thickness of the frazil ice (or platelet) ice layer beneath land fast sea ice, not are the processes which form frazil ice ...


80. Daily CTD cast measurements near the Erebus Glacier Tongue, McMurdo Sound [K131_2005_2006_NZ_2]
Fjords are a common feature in the coast of Antarctica, particularly in the Ross Sea region, yet little is known about the circulation within most of these fjords. The oceanography of Ferrar fjord ...


81. Deep and shallow CTD casts of turbulence at the sea ice-ocean interface in McMurdo Sound [K131_2005_2006_NZ_1]
Turbulence exists at the sea ice-ocean interface and therefore may have a key role in the latter stages of sea ice formation, including the forming of frazil ice. Both deep and shallow CTD casts were ...


82. Determination of the thermal conductivity of sea ice from measurements of ice temperature (and temperature gradients), salinity, ice microstructure and other environmental parameters [K131_2002_2004_NZ_1]
The polar oceans' sea ice cover strongly modifies ocean-atmosphere heat transfer. Despite its importance, existing circulation models and large scale sea ice models include overly simplistic parameterizations ...


83. Determining the influence of waves on the physical behaviour of the sea ice with mechanically generated waves [K131_2000_2002_NZ_1]
The interaction of the ocean wave field with the sea ice was investigated by creating a wave generating machine to generate waves which have clearly defined parameters such as amplitude and frequency. ...


84. Investigation into the relationship between floe size distribution (FSD), differential floe motion and jostling, and ocean wave fields penetrating the Ross Sea marginal ice zones [K131_1998_1999_NZ_1]
The relationship between floe size distribution, differential floe motion and jostling and ocean wave fields penetrating the Ross Sea marginal ice zone was investigated using ship borne access to ...


85. Mathematical modelling of the optical behaviour sea ice in McMurdo Sound to determine the partitioning of radiant energy [K131_1998_1999_NZ_2]
Optical beam-spread profiles were measured on sea ice from McMurdo Sound, with a view to understanding the role of microstructure in the scattering of light in sea ice. These experiments were performed ...


86. Measurements of high amplitude/low cycle fatigue of sea ice in conjunction with the characteristic length of sea ice, temperature and salinity profiles and acoustic emissions [K131_1989_1998_NZ_1]
The high amplitude/low cycle fatigue properties of sea ice in situ at high strain were investigated by developing a cantilever system of sea ice beams and using hydraulic equipment to exercise these ...


87. Measurements of sea ice physical properties and ice strain and wave pattern generated by a load moving over sea ice near Tent Island, McMurdo Sound [K131_1985_1986_NZ_1]
An experiment designed to study, in detail, the wave pattern generated by a load moving over sea ice was conducted on a flat area of snow free, shore fast sea ice about 2km west of Tent Island in ...


88. Oceanographic and sea ice measurements to determine the influence of platelet ice on the freezing of land fast sea ice [K131_2003_2004_NZ_1]
An understanding of the formation of platelet ice in McMurdo Sound and consequently its influence on the formation of land fast sea ice was investigated over a winter season when ice formation begins ...


89. Simultaneous measurements of ocean current, temperature and salinity measurements to determine the oceanography of McMurdo Sound [K131_2004_2007_NZ_1]
McMurdo Sound forms a natural and accessible laboratory for understanding the fundamental processes that underpin ice-ocean interactions. How changes in the sea ice sheet affect the physical oceanography ...


90. The distribution, taxonomy, physiology and feeding habits of pelagic amphipods in Terra Nova Bay [K043_2006_2008_NZ_5]
The distribution, taxonomy, physiology and feeding habits of pelagic amphipods was investigated. Amphipods were collected by plankton tow, baited traps, coring (coring through sea ice) or hand collections ...


91. The effects of UVB on growth and productivity and photoadaptations of bottom ice algae at Cape Evans, McMurdo Sound [K136_1999_2002_NZ_1]
Sea ice hosts a large community of algae which is released into the food chain when the ice melts. The sea ice algae grow rapidly in the Antarctic spring at a time that coincides with the ozone hole ...


92. The role of grazing on sea ice algae and sea ice bacteria by ciliates and flagellated (zooplankton) in Terra Nova Bay [K043_2006_2008_NZ_3]
Sea water was collected from a depth of 2 meters below the sea ice in the region of Gondwana Station in Terra Nova Bay. Initial measurements of chlorophyll along with presence and abundance of ciliates ...


93. The thermal conductivity and diffusivity of first year sea ice measured as a temperature depth profile in developing sea ice during the winter months in McMurdo Sound [K131_1994_1998_NZ_2]
Measurements of heat flows and hence thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity in sea ice was measured in the absence of thermal radiation (i.e. sunlight, which dumps heat at depth in the ice and ...


94. The use of nuclear magnetic resonance to measure water content (a component of brine volume) and the diffusivity of liquid water in sea ice [K131_1994_1998_NZ_1]
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is able to discriminate signals arising from nuclei hosted by molecules in the solid state, from those in a liquid state and was therefore used to examine the state ...


95. Thick and thin sections and salinity and temperature profiles from natural refrozen and artificially refrozen sea ice cracks [K131_2001_2003_NZ_1]
Large marine organisms, specifically foraminifers and copepods, were collected from the sea ice, brine and water column from thin ice north of Beaufort Island at the beginning of the warming period ...


96. Velocity profiles, and ocean boundary layer experiments of the near ice stratification and platelet ice matrix of the McMurdo Sound sea ice [K131_2007_2009_NZ_2]
Two holes in the sea ice were melted in a location off Cape Armitage. Heated containers were installed over the holes to enable detailed oceanographic experimentation. Sea ice structure, C-axis orientation, ...


97. Conceptual modelling of the sewage and wastewater plume from Scott Base incorporating current and tidal data, seawater stratification and microbiological, physical and chemical indicators associated with the plume [K407_1998_1999_NZ_1]
Before the installation of the Scott Base sewage treatment plant, untreated sewage and wastewater was discharged directlyin front of Scott Base since its occupation in 1957. The distribution of sewage ...


98. Measurements of the amount of UV and visible radiation falling onto sea ice and the effects of enhanced UV radiation levels on sea ice algae [K136_1991_1992_NZ_1]
Sea ice algae are speculated to be considerably vulnerable to the effects of enhanced UV from the ozone hole during the Antarctic spring. The amount of UV and visible radiation falling onto the sea ...


99. Sea ice productivity in the Mertz Glacier Region [K043_2002_2004_NZ_1]
Eastern Antarctic sea ice algal biomass were measured in the spring of 2002, 2003 and 2004. Productivity was measured by 14C in 2002 and by oxygen electrodes in 2002 and 2004. Biomass was low, in ...


100. The biomass, productivity and biodiversity of algae in the Cape Hallett region [K043_2003_2005_NZ_1]
The distribution and biodiversity of algae was assessed to enable possible future predictions of the effects of global warming. Sites (5 in the first season, 4 in the second) were established around ...


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