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51. Liver samples collected for investigations of enzyme activity of Glutathione-s-transferase in the Antarctic fish Dissostichus mawsoni and Pagothenia borchgrevinki [K042_1983_1984_NZ_2]
The level of the detoxication system in Antarctic fish from the enzyme glutathione-s-transferase was tested. Samples of liver from the Antarctic fish Dissostichus mawsoni and Pagothenia borchgrevinki ...


52. A partitioning experiments to determine the aetiology of x-cell disease [K057_1999_2000_NZ_2]
Captured Pagothenia borchgrevinki fish were placed into an aquarium and partitioned into tanks as all healthy, all x-cell or a mixture of the two. Lengths and weights of all fish were measured and ...


53. An investigation of the x-cell disease in Pagothenia borchgrevinki fish in McMurdo Sound with measurements of condition factor, gut contents, internal organ status and analysis of tissue samples [K057_1997_1998_NZ_1]
The distribution of x-cell disease in Pagothenia borchgrevinki fish in McMurdo Sound and the effects of the disease on the fish was investigated. A series of linear transects were samples close to ...


54. Analysis of activity levels and oxygen consumptions of the Antarctic fish Trematomus bernacchii to determine if they have a circadian rhythm [K057_2004_2005_NZ_1]
Antarctic fish live in an environment with high seasonality, where levels of sunlight in the summer are up to 24 hours a day and in total darkness during the winter. Fish were monitored to determine ...


55. Changes in haematocrit, chloride concentrations and osmolarity of Pagothenia borchgrevinki fish exposed to 10°C water for 10 minutes [K057_1987_1988_NZ_4]
The affects of acute increase in temperature on haematocrit and on the ionic and osmotic homeostasis of Pagothenia borchgrevinki was investigated. Fish were captured and placed in aquariums at a temperature ...


56. Examination of the ability of the Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki to withstand hypoxic conditions, their ability to recover and the potential for lactate as an end product of metabolism during hypoxia [K057_2003_2004_NZ_1]
Fish muscle was not found to produce lactic acid as an end product of anaerobic metabolism during high speed swimming. However, analysis of the enzymes involved in anaerobic metabolism, particularly ...


57. Investigation of catchecholamine release from blood samples after different stress conditions in the three Antarctic fish; Pagothenia borchgrevinki, Trematomus bernacchii and T. centronotus [K057_1998_1999_NZ_2]
Under certain conditions, catecholamines (stress hormones) are released into the blood system of Antarctic fish. Under what conditions these hormones are released, the time course for recovery back ...


58. Investigation of the cardiovascular control of notothenioid fish (Pagothenia borchgrevinki and Trematomus bernacchii) [K057_1992_1993_NZ_1]
It has been shown that under stress, red blooded notothenioids increase their haematocrit by contracting the spleen thus releasing red blood cells and increasing the heart rate. The increase in heart ...


59. Investigation of the cardiovascular system of a member of the Bathydraconidae, the dragonfish, Gymnodraco acuticeps [K057_1999_2000_NZ_3]
The Antarctic dragon fish, Grymnodraco acuticeps, was capture opportunistically from McMurdo Sound. The characteristics of its cardiovascular system were investigated, including heart rate and aortic ...


60. Measurements of blood pressure, heart rate, blood flow, PO2 and oxygen content of blood and examination of the heart of Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki with x-cell disease and healthy fish [K057_2000_2002_NZ_1]
The presence of x-cell disease in Antarctic fish, a disease that affects the gills by producing lesions on the gill tissue, has been shown to affect the ability of the fish to take up oxygen and can ...


61. Measurements of burst swimming performance of five species of Antarctic fish [K057_1998_1999_NZ_6]
Individuals of the Antarctic fish species Pagothenia borchgrevinki, Termatomus bernacchii, T. hansoni, T. Nicolai and Gymnodraco acuticeps were collected from several locations in McMurdo Sound and ...


62. Measurements of heart rate, blood pressure, ventral aortic pressure, systolic and diastolic pressure in the hearts of healthy and x-cell diseased Antarctic fish, Pagothenia borchgrevinki [K057_1998_1999_NZ_3]
The effect of x-cell disease on the heart of an Antarctic fish (Pagothenia borchgrevinki) was investigated in resting and exercised fish to examine the ability of the heart to supply blood to the ...


63. Measurements of specific dynamic action (energy required to digest and assimilate food) via oxygen consumption and nitrogen excretion rates [K057_1998_1999_NZ_5]
Specific dynamic action (SDA) refers to the energy required to digest and assimilate food. This is measureable in terms of increased oxygen consumption and in some species of fish can represent a ...


64. Measurements of the effect of temperature and feeding on the blood flow through major arteries of the Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki [K057_2007_2008_NZ_2]
The Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki has been shown to be able to survive at raised temperatures. An increase in temperature causes an increase in metabolic rate which requires an increased ...


65. Measurements of the effects of temperature on venous blood pressure in the Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki [K057_2007_2008_NZ_3]
The Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki has been shown to be able to survive at raised temperatures. Cardiac filling in vertebrates is influenced by venous return which itself is influenced by ...


66. Measurements of the extent of hypertension (aortae blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen tension of the blood and morphometrics of the heart) in Antarctic fish affected with x-cell disease [K057_2003_2005_NZ_1]
The ability of x-cell affected fish to swim was determined using a swimming tunnel closed box respirometer and measuring maximum oxygen consumption and recovery post exercise. In severe cases of x-cell ...


67. Measurements of the fate of carbon dioxide in the blood of the Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki [K057_1998_1999_NZ_1]
Using purpose built tonometers, the carbon dioxide (CO2) dynamics in whole blood and plasma of the Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki was determined. The tonometers maintained samples of blood ...


68. Morphological examination of x-cell affected gills from Pagothenia borchgrevinki [K057_1987_1988_NZ_2]
During the 83-84 season, several Pagothenia borchgrevinki fish were collected which had damaged gills. The gill filaments were white, instead of the usual red colour due to blood perfusion and also ...


69. Oxygen consumption rates and lactic acid levels of notothenioid fish to determine the exercise physiology of how a low water temperature has affected their ability to swim [K057_1985_1986_NZ_1]
Notothenioid fish live in a relatively constant temperature of -1.86?C. In order to survive at this temperature they have undergone several modifications to their biochemical makeup. The ability of ...


70. Oxygen consumption rates of Pagothenia borchgrevinki: A study to determine if they can utilise their skin surface for gas exchange [K057_1987_1988_NZ_3]
The ability of Pagothenia borchgrevinki to utilise their skin surface for gas exchange was examined. A fish was anaesthetised and a rubber collar placed over the fish, isolating the head of the animal ...


71. Oxygen uptake rates of Pagothenia borchgrevinki fish affected with x-cell at rest and in strenuous exercise and morphological examination of x-cell affected gills [K057_1987_1988_NZ_1]
During the 83-84 season, several Pagothenia borchgrevinki fish were collected which had damaged gills. The gill filaments were white, instead of the usual red colour due to blood perfusion and also ...


72. Respiration rates and physiological changes of Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki exposed to fuel oil, acute vs chronic exposure [K057_1989_1991_NZ_1]
The potential for oil pollution in the Ross Sea is increasing as shipping activities increase due to base operations and tourism. The effects of diesel fuel oil on Antarctic fish survival and physiology ...


73. The characteristics of an isolated in situ Pagothenia borchgrevinki heart: heart rate and pressure, the effects of drugs, innervation of the heart and biochemical work of the blood and muscle tissue [K057_1996_1997_NZ_3]
The characteristics of an isolated in situ fish heart was investigated. A Pagothenia borchgrevinki fish was killed and its heart was exposed and isolated from its blood supply, but left in place ...


74. The control of blood flow and the effects of drugs on the contractile forces exerted by blood vessels in the gills of Pagothenia borchgrevinki [K057_1995_1996_NZ_1]
The control of blood flow through the gill of a notothenioid fish, Pagothenia borchgrevinki, was examined by isolating a gill arch and perfusing it with saline. The effects of drugs on the afferent ...


75. The control of blood flow through the gills and the effects of a number of vasoactive drugs on blood flow and oxygen uptake in two Antarctic fish, Pagothenia borchgrevinki and Trematomus bernacchii [K057_1996_1997_NZ_1]
The extracorporeal loop technique was used to measure oxygen levels of the blood, pre and post-branchial blood pressure, heart rate, blood flow and from these measurements stroke volume of the heart ...


76. The dynamics of red blood cell release and uptake by the spleen and the control of red blood cell swelling from the effects of stress in two species of Antarctic fish, Pagothenia borchgrevinki and Trematomus bernacchii [K057_1996_1997_NZ_2]
In vitro experimentation determined that red cell swelling is a consequence of activation of a Na+/H+ antiporter located on the red cell membrane. The antiporter is controlled by a ?-adrenoceptor ...


77. The effects of increased temperature on the physiological variable (heart rate, respiratory frequency, oxygen consumption, blood pressure, etc) of 2 Antarctic fish: Pagothenia borchgrevinki, Trematomus bernacchii [K057_2002_2003_NZ_2]
The effects of increased temperature on physiological variables in two Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki (pelagic) and Trematomus bernacchii (sedentary) was investigated using a new technique ...


78. The functioning of the spleen in the Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki [K057_1994_1995_NZ_2]
The spleen of notothenioids releases red blood cells during times of stress to increase oxygen uptake. The more red blood cells in the blood, the more viscous it is and the harder it is to pump around ...


79. The muscle histochemistry and characterization of different metabolic types in fin and trunk muscles investigated on Antarctic fish [K057_1983_1984_NZ_1]
The muscle histochemistry and characterization of different metabolic types in fin and trunk muscles was investigated on Antarctic fish. Frozen sections were cut and examined and interactions and ...


80. The rates of blood flow and oxygen uptake in the gills of the Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki [K057_1994_1995_NZ_1]
Blood flow and oxygen uptake at the gills of Antarctic fish was examined using an extracorporeal loop that links the blood supply of the fish between the ventral and dorsal aorta so that continuous ...


81. The respiratory and metabolic activity of a nematode worm found in the body cavity of Antarctic fish and Weddell seals [K057_1999_2000_NZ_1]
The respiratory ability of a nematode worm at different temperatures up to 38?C that live in the body cavity of Antarctic fish and ultimately with the final host being a Weddell seal was examined. ...


82. The role of the spleen in producing red blood cells during stress (measurements of haematocrit, haemoglobin, chloride, adrenaline conc., spleen mass) in Antarctic fish (Pagothenia borchgrevinki, Trematomus bernacchii) [K057_1991_1992_NZ_1]
The effects of stress (both hypoxia and exercise) on haematocrit in Antarctic fish was investigated with the aim to examine red cell release from the spleen under conditions of stress. The spleen ...


83. The swimming ability (mechanics, oxygen consumption, level of hormones, the effects of temperature, lactic acid production) of the Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki [K057_1998_2002_NZ_1]
Antarctic fish kept in the aquarium system in the wet lab were videotaped while swimming and the data was analysed frame by frame to determine swimming mechanics in these animals. Fish were also introduced ...


84. The vasoconstrictor response of blood vessels from two Antarctic fish Trematomus bernacchii and Dissostichus mawsoni and a temperate species Paranotothenia angustata [K057_1998_1999_NZ_4]
Available evidence suggests that animals living in extreme cold are unusual in having a non-catecholamine based stress response, relying more on neural than hormonal control of the cardiovascular ...


85. Adelie penguin liver P450 enzymes [K065_1996_1998_NZ_1]
Animlas can be harmed by artificially introduced chemicals either through the food chain or directly. This study aimed to determine how penguins detoxify chemical pollutants they may be exposed to. ...


86. Adelie penguin weights before and after foraging trips from three groups of penguins: control, single egg removed and penned females [K063_1987_1988_NZ_2]
As an index of physiological condition and success of foraging, penguins were weighed early in the season when they were flipper banded and then re-weighed when they returned from their foraging trip. ...


87. Behavioural observations of nest site selection in Adelie penguins at Cape Bird [K121_1986_1987_NZ_2]
Virtually all penguins return to their natal rookeries to breed, after spending a couple of years at sea. A majority of young birds of both sexes end up settling within 200 m of their natal nest ...


88. Blood samples analysed for albumin to determine if the lack of this protein serum is common to the Notothenioid fish group [K066_2001_2002_NZ_1]
One species of Antarctic Notothenioid fish was found to lack the common blood protein serum albumin. It was investigated if this was common to all notothenioid fish. In addition, if this blood protein ...


89. Fish tissue samples for use in phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies of notothenioid fish [K066_2001_2006_NZ_1]
Antarctica has been a frozen continent for about the last 15-20 million years. In that time, the notothenioid fish have become the dominant group of fish with about 100 new species appearing in the ...


90. Measurements of factors affecting the timing of nest relief in Adelie penguins at Cape Bird [K121_1986_1987_NZ_1]
The timing of nest relief is crucial to the nesting success of adelie penguins. Experiments were conducted to test whether the physiological conditions of the female will determine how long she stays ...


91. Metabolic consequences of diving in the Weddell seal (Leptoychotes weddelli) [K065_2002_2003_NZ_1]
To achieve a greater understanding of metabolic efficiency during diving, it is important to establish the degree of metabolic suppression (reduction of oxygen consumption) at the cellular level, ...


92. Nest success (eggs laid, hatched and chick survival) of south Polar Skuas at Cape Bird [K121_1986_1987_NZ_3]
Siblicide in nestling South Polar Skuas was investigated at Cape Bird. Skua nests were located and monitored (112 in the 86-87 season, 165 in the 87-88 season and 173 in the 88-89 season). Their ...


93. Satellite tracks for female adelie penguins during the breeding season [K065_1988_1989_NZ_2]
Four satellite transmitters were deployed on female Adelie penguins during the incubation period. The transmitters were affixed to the backs of the penguins using an epoxy glue. The birds were banded, ...


94. The energy expenditure by mother Weddell seals during the suckling period [K071_1996_1997_NZ_1]
Weddell seals are well adapted polar animals. They give birth to pups in the Antarctic summer when they haul out onto the ice. While feeding their pups, they have a massive fasting weight loss (and ...


95. The identification, function and cold adaptation of the proteins/enzymes in Antarctic fish from amount and distribution of lactate dehydrogenase from seven different tissues [K066_2000_2003_NZ_2]
The cold adaptation in the proteins/enzymes of Antarctic fish was investigated in collaboration with the American Antarctic program. The likely function of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), the only isozyme ...


96. The length of a female adelie penguin foraging trip after being prevented from going to sea [K063_1987_1988_NZ_1]
One potential proximate cause of the timing of the nest relief cycle of adelie penguins was investigated by testing the hypothesis that the females count the days that they are gone from the nest ...


97. Time-depth records of diving behaviour profiles of adelie penguins at various nest stages [K065_1988_1989_NZ_1]
Using a newly developed small electronic package, time depth recorders, several penguins were fitted to determine the profile of their diving behaviour while they are foraging. The time depth recorders ...


98. Using labelled antifreeze proteins placed in the gut of notothenioid fish to determine the path they take from the gut to the blood [K066_2000_2003_NZ_1]
The many fish that live in the waters around Antarctica have a unique set of adaptations to cope with the extremely cold conditions in which they live. They have developed antifreeze proteins (AFP) ...


99. A study on the siting, establishment and maintenance of territories in the South Polar Skua (Catharacta maccormicki) [K017_1967_1968_NZ_2]
A study of skua territories was conducted by examining siting, establishment and maintenance of territories in two very different conditions including in an area close to the penguins where skuas ...


100. Measurements of the strength of an adult skua and the force required to drag an adelie penguin chick from a colony [K017_1968_1969_NZ_1]
How much force was necessary to drag struggling adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) chicks of different ages from a colony was measured by holding a chick in a harness as they tugged against a spring ...


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