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101. Measurements and observations (breeding success, territorial behaviour, morphometric measurements, blood hormone level, etc) of breeding pairs and non-breeding individual South Polar skuas at Northern Rookery, Cape Bird [K063_1989_1990_NZ_1]
South polar skuas (Catharacta maccormicki) are strongly territorial and the number of territorial pairs in any given area is relatively constant from year to year. The presence of adult non-breeding ...


102. Measurements of atmospheric aerosols from air and snow samples and meteorological measurements taken from a remote site on the Ross Ice Shelf [K093_1989_1990_NZ_1]
The chemistry of air and snow at a remote site on the Ross Ice Shelf was conducted to study atmospheric aerosol particulates which are of interest as they may be important regulators of climate and ...


103. Baseline measurements of atmospheric mercury concentrations from Scott Base/Arrival Heights [K013_1985_1988_NZ_1]
The southern hemisphere is not as well characterized as that of the northern hemisphere for atmospheric mercury measurements. Very little data exists for baseline atmospheric mercury data in Antarctica. ...


104. Measurements of bill length, body weight, analysis of stomach contents and count of bird movements to and from a colony at Cape Bird to examine feeding behaviour of Adelie penguins [K014_1973_1974_NZ_3]
Weights and bill measurements of 300 adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) leaving the colony and returning from fishing were taken (10 every 2 days) and stomach samples were collected from 17 birds ...


105. Measurements of blood pressure, heart rate, blood flow, PO2 and oxygen content of blood and examination of the heart of Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki with x-cell disease and healthy fish [K057_2000_2002_NZ_1]
The presence of x-cell disease in Antarctic fish, a disease that affects the gills by producing lesions on the gill tissue, has been shown to affect the ability of the fish to take up oxygen and can ...


106. Measurements of blood progesterone levels during the breeding season of adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) to determine if foraging trips are synchronised [K063_1991_1992_NZ_1]
During the breeding season of adelie penguins, breeding birds undergo periods of fast while their mate is out foraging. A late return by either member of a pair can cause nest failure as late returning ...


107. Bathymetric surveys of the nearshore submarine platforms around Favreau Pillar, Kirstensen Rocks and near Foyn and Possession Islands [K020_1982_1983_NZ_1]
A brief bathymetric survey of the platforms around Favreau Pillar, Kirstensen Rocks and near Foyn and Possession Islands was made using a zodiac inflatable dinghy and a small portable echosounder. ...


108. Measurements of brine diffusivity in both vertical and horizontal directions to 1400 mm in sea ice from McMurdo Sound [K131_2002_2003_NZ_1]
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques for probing sea ice cracks and imperfections and the use of this as a tool for wide ranging surveys of sea ice properties was investigated over several ...


109. Measurements of burst swimming performance of five species of Antarctic fish [K057_1998_1999_NZ_6]
Individuals of the Antarctic fish species Pagothenia borchgrevinki, Termatomus bernacchii, T. hansoni, T. Nicolai and Gymnodraco acuticeps were collected from several locations in McMurdo Sound and ...


110. Measurements of carbon dioxide concentrations and isotopic ratios from air samples collected at the surface and at altitude between New Zealand and the South Pole to determine if the Southern Ocean is a carbon sink [K087_1998_2004_NZ_1]
Carbon dioxide concentrations between New Zealand and the South Pole were found to vary for periods of several years suggesting that the Southern Ocean is acting as a sink. The role of the Southern ...


111. Measurements of carbon monoxide concentrations and isotopic ratios from the atmosphere via equipment aboard supply aircrafts operating between Christchurch, New Zealand and McMurdo Sound [K087_1991_2008_NZ_2]
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a trace gas in the atmosphere. The use of the radioactive isotope 14C in carbon monoxide is useful for determining the oxidative capacity via oxidation by hydroxyl (OH). Large ...


112. Measurements of cardiovascular physiology of the Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki and Trematomus bernacchii acclimatized to -1°C and +4°C [K057_2003_2007_NZ_1]
Evolutionary theory predicts that specialisation to a narrow set of environmental conditions will lead to a decreased capacity for phenotypes to change in response to environmental variability. This ...


113. Measurements of distribution, swimming and feeding behaviour, diet analysis and morphometric measurements of Paramoera walkeri - a common subtidal gammarid amphipod [K014_1971_1972_NZ_2]
Paramoera walkeri is a common subtidal gammarid amphipod, occurring to depths slightly in excess of 15m. Work was completed over two seasons of sampling. In the first season, 4 samples were taken ...


114. Measurements of factors affecting the timing of nest relief in Adelie penguins at Cape Bird [K121_1986_1987_NZ_1]
The timing of nest relief is crucial to the nesting success of adelie penguins. Experiments were conducted to test whether the physiological conditions of the female will determine how long she stays ...


115. Measurements of heart rate, blood oxygenation, redox state of cytochrome oxidase and blood flow in peripheral tissues of Adelie penguins that have been stressed using an infrared spectrometer [K032_1999_2000_NZ_1]
Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) live and breed in an physiologically demanding environment that requires individual birds to respond rapidly to fluctuating environmental conditions. The physiological ...


116. Measurements of heart rate, blood pressure, ventral aortic pressure, systolic and diastolic pressure in the hearts of healthy and x-cell diseased Antarctic fish, Pagothenia borchgrevinki [K057_1998_1999_NZ_3]
The effect of x-cell disease on the heart of an Antarctic fish (Pagothenia borchgrevinki) was investigated in resting and exercised fish to examine the ability of the heart to supply blood to the ...


117. Measurements of heart rate, ventilation rate and metabolic rate of Trematomus bernacchii. [K057_2011_2012_NZ_1]
Measurements of heart rate, ventilation rate and metabolic rate of Trematomus bernacchii subjected to elevated temperatures, including recovery from exercise and tolerance to hypoxia. The primary ...


118. Measurements of heart rate, ventilation rate and metabolic rate of Trematomus bernacchii. - K057_2011_2013_NZ_1 [K057_2011_2013_NZ_1]
Measurements of heart rate, ventilation rate and metabolic rate of Trematomus bernacchii. - K057_2011_2013_NZ_1subjected to elevated temperatures, including recovery from exercise and tolerance to ...


119. Measurements of high amplitude/low cycle fatigue of sea ice in conjunction with the characteristic length of sea ice, temperature and salinity profiles and acoustic emissions [K131_1989_1998_NZ_1]
The high amplitude/low cycle fatigue properties of sea ice in situ at high strain were investigated by developing a cantilever system of sea ice beams and using hydraulic equipment to exercise these ...


120. Measurements of metabolic rate, osmotic pressure and blood volume of pycnogonids from Antarctica [K057_1985_1986_NZ_2]
Several individuals of several species of pycnogonids (sea spiders) were obtained from the aquarium at McMurdo Station. Measurements of metabolic rate, osmotic pressure and blood volume was determined ...


121. Measurements of methane concentrations and isotopic ratios from the atmosphere via equipment aboard supply aircrafts operating between Christchurch, New Zealand and McMurdo Sound [K087_1989_2008_NZ_2]
The atmospheric trace gas, methane (CH4), affects the radiative heat balance of the earth. Measurements of the carbon and hydrogen isotopes in atmospheric methane are used to relate this climatically ...


122. Behavioural observations (frequency and timing of copulation attempts) and paternity analysis from blood samples to investigate sperm competition of adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) [K063_1993_1998_NZ_1]
Sexual selection theory suggests that males compete for females and females choose males. Sperm competition is one aspect of this competition. There are two possible mechanisms of sperm competition, ...


123. Behavioural observations of nest site selection in Adelie penguins at Cape Bird [K121_1986_1987_NZ_2]
Virtually all penguins return to their natal rookeries to breed, after spending a couple of years at sea. A majority of young birds of both sexes end up settling within 200 m of their natal nest ...


124. Behavioural observations, recorded calls and breeding parameters as factors influencing the vocal behaviour of Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) [K019_2000_2001_NZ_1]
Factors influencing the development and survival of Adelie penguins were investigated from the Cape Bird colony. The fieldwork focused on aspects of vocal recognition but parental care and chick development ...


125. Benthic mat biomass, productivity (photosynthesis and respiration) and contributions to lake nutrient cycling in Lake Hoare, Taylor Valley [K081_1996_2000_NZ_1]
The importance of benthic microbial mat production in the Lake Hoare, Taylor Valley and how the mats are adapted to survive and grow in deep water (extreme low light but no freezing) was investigated. ...


126. Measurements of reduced sulphur gases from the melt waters and atmosphere of the McMurdo Ice Shelf: A collaboration with the RISE (Ross Ice Shelf Ecosystem) programme [K013_1989_1990_NZ_1]
A large freshwater ecosystem on the McMurdo Ice Shelf and the lower Koettlitz Glacier, in the Ross Dependency, is an area some 1500 km2. The area is covered by pools, lakes, streams and rivers, many ...


127. Measurements of sea ice physical properties and ice strain and wave pattern generated by a load moving over sea ice near Tent Island, McMurdo Sound [K131_1985_1986_NZ_1]
An experiment designed to study, in detail, the wave pattern generated by a load moving over sea ice was conducted on a flat area of snow free, shore fast sea ice about 2km west of Tent Island in ...


128. Measurements of specific dynamic action (energy required to digest and assimilate food) via oxygen consumption and nitrogen excretion rates [K057_1998_1999_NZ_5]
Specific dynamic action (SDA) refers to the energy required to digest and assimilate food. This is measureable in terms of increased oxygen consumption and in some species of fish can represent a ...


129. Measurements of spectral transmission and backscattering of light in first year sea ice, Tent Island, McMurdo Sound [K132_1985_1987_NZ_1]
In situ measurements of the the spectral transmission and backscattering of light was conducted on first year ice to characterise the optical properties of sea ice. The average scattering length and ...


130. Measurements of the amount of UV and visible radiation falling onto sea ice and the effects of enhanced UV radiation levels on sea ice algae [K136_1991_1992_NZ_1]
Sea ice algae are speculated to be considerably vulnerable to the effects of enhanced UV from the ozone hole during the Antarctic spring. The amount of UV and visible radiation falling onto the sea ...


131. Measurements of the boundary layer (bottom) of the atmosphere of the atmospheric trace gases NO2, O3, OClO and BrO [K085_2004_2005_NZ_1]
The experimental set up of the 'off axis' UV/visible wavelength diode array spectrometer was compared with a small portable field instrument. The diode array uses sunlight and moonlight to measure ...


132. Measurements of the caridac, hematocrit and haemoglobin concentration recovery rates from exercise and in response to cardioregulatory drugs of Pagothenia borchgrevinki, T. bernacchii and Rhigophila dearborni [K012_1988_1989_NZ_2]
Electrocardiograms were recorded for Pagothenia borchgrevinki, T. bernacchii and Rhigophila dearborni while the fish were immobilised by artificial ventilation of the gills by rapid water flow over ...


133. Measurements of the effect of temperature and feeding on the blood flow through major arteries of the Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki [K057_2007_2008_NZ_2]
The Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki has been shown to be able to survive at raised temperatures. An increase in temperature causes an increase in metabolic rate which requires an increased ...


134. Measurements of the effects of debris on the mechanical behaviour (deformation and motion) of ice of the Taylor Glacier, Taylor Valley, Antarctica [K053_1992_2000_NZ_1]
Debris-rich ice is a commonly observed basal ice facies found at the base of many temperate and polar glaciers and at the base of cores through major ice sheets. The effects of the presence of debris ...


135. Measurements of the effects of temperature on venous blood pressure in the Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki [K057_2007_2008_NZ_3]
The Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki has been shown to be able to survive at raised temperatures. Cardiac filling in vertebrates is influenced by venous return which itself is influenced by ...


136. Measurements of the effects of UV-B on sea ice algal growth and productivity [K131_1994_1998_NZ_4]
The effects of UV-B on the growth and productivity of sea ice algae was investigated with two experiments. The growth of sea ice algae was investigated in situ under four different light treatments ...


137. Measurements of the energy requirements of adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) by analysis of blood samples for the turnover rate of injected radioactive water and salts and from analysis of gut contents [K121_1984_1987_NZ_1]
The metabolic rate and energy requirements of penguins was determined by measuring the turnover rates of radioactive body water and salts. Individual birds were banded, weighed and injected with radio-active ...


138. Measurements of the extent of hypertension (aortae blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen tension of the blood and morphometrics of the heart) in Antarctic fish affected with x-cell disease [K057_2003_2005_NZ_1]
The ability of x-cell affected fish to swim was determined using a swimming tunnel closed box respirometer and measuring maximum oxygen consumption and recovery post exercise. In severe cases of x-cell ...


139. Measurements of the fate of carbon dioxide in the blood of the Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki [K057_1998_1999_NZ_1]
Using purpose built tonometers, the carbon dioxide (CO2) dynamics in whole blood and plasma of the Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki was determined. The tonometers maintained samples of blood ...


140. Measurements of the fixation of nitrogen by auroras and the chemical composition of snow at the south pole [K042_1963_1964_NZ_2]
Two scientists went to the South Pole Station to investigated the chemical composition of the polar snow. Measurements were made of the chemical constituents to determine how much nitrogen is fixed ...


141. Measurements of the mixing ratios of the C2-C10 non-methane hydrocarbons from Arrival Heights since 1990 [K087_1990_2008_NZ_1]
A large variety of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) are found throughout the troposphere in varying concentrations. The reaction of a NMHC with the hydroxyl (OH) molecule causes atmospheric oxidation. ...


142. Measurements of the physical properties of Antarctic fast ice and their variations throughout the growth season [K213_1986_1987_NZ_1]
The physical properties of Antarctic fast ice were investigated throughout a full year of growth. The aim of the project was three fold; 1) to document the basic physical properties of Antarctic fast ...


143. Measurements of the polarisation of the Antarctic sky from the sea ice edge at Cape Bird and from a ship journey from Hobart to McMurdo Sound [K041_1997_1998_NZ_1]
The polarisation of the Antarctic sky was captured near the sea ice edge at Cape Bird to complement previous studies of the sky polarisation seen at Wellington (New Zealand), Scott Base, Tent Island ...


144. Measurements of the production of 14C in cylinders in Antarctica [K087_1992_1993_NZ_1]
In order to measure the production of 14C via 14N (n,p) 14C, cylinders with ultra pure air doped with dead CO were exposed at Scott Base and the South Pole.


145. Measurements of the quantal content in neuromuscular transmission of the Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki - end plate potential recordings from muscle fibres [K012_1984_1985_NZ_1]
The Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki was captured from near Scott Base and used to measure the quantal content in neuromuscular transmission of Antarctic fish. The amount of neurotransmitter ...


146. Measurements of the strength of an adult skua and the force required to drag an adelie penguin chick from a colony [K017_1968_1969_NZ_1]
How much force was necessary to drag struggling adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) chicks of different ages from a colony was measured by holding a chick in a harness as they tugged against a spring ...


147. Measurements of the tide level, current, temperature and salinity of McMurdo Sound and examination of the biological biomass in the water column [K007_1970_1974_NZ_1]
A measurement of the tides and currents in McMurdo Sound was conducted over several seasons. Current measurements were first made in McMurdo Sound by Hodgson (1907) during the stay of the Discovery ...


148. Measurements of the transmission of UV light to infrared light through different samples of snow around Scott Base [K041_1997_1998_NZ_2]
The transmission of light through snow depends not only on the cleanliness but also on the size of the snow particles. The transmission properties are directly related to the reflection properties ...


149. Measurements of the UV radiation (Blue, Violet, UVA and UVB) falling on sea ice in McMurdo Sound, quantification of sea ice algae and the effect of snow thickness on the transmissivity of sea ice to UV radiation [K041_1995_1996_NZ_1]
The relative amounts of visible, near and far UV radiation (Blue, Violet, UVA and UVB) falling onto sea ice in McMurdo Sound was measured at a site well cantered in the ice, i.e. not at the ice edge. ...


150. Measurements of the viscosity of blood and plasmas at various temperatures and shear rates in Antarctic notothenioids, zoarcids, channichthyids and a New Zealand notothenioid [K012_1988_1989_NZ_1]
The viscosity of blood and plasma was measured from the Antarctic notothenioids Pagothenia borchgrevinki, Trematomus bernacchii, T. centronotus and Dissostichus mawsoni, from the Antarctic zoarcid ...


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