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51. Investigation of the physics (heat balance) and chemistry of Lake Vanda, Wright Valley, 1961-1962 [K042_1961_1962_NZ_1]
The first study of the physics and chemistry of Lake Vanda and the geology of the surrounding area were investigated in the 1961-1962 field season. Twelve holes were drilled at 1000ft intervals along ...


52. Measurement of atmospheric electrical fields during storms and the investigation of the effect of blowing dust on these fields [K011_1969_1974_NZ_1]
An electrostatic field mill, operated by the University of Auckand Physics Department was installed at Vanda Station and monitored electrical fields during storms throughout the year over several ...


53. Measurements of water temperature, spectral irradiance (amount of sunlight), density and salt concentration from lakes in the Taylor and Wright Valley [K042_1963_1964_NZ_1]
The physics and chemistry of the many lakes and ponds in the McMurdo Dry Valleys was investigated in the 1963-64 field season. Previous work on Lakes Vanda and Bonney in the Wright and Taylor Valleys ...


54. Observations of the circulation of winds in the Wright Valley using an acoustic sounder, pilot balloons and airsondes [K172_1988_1989_NZ_1]
Previous meteorological measurements in the Dry Valley region of South Victoria Land have shown that during summer, there is a well developed diurnal local circulation driven by solar heating/convective ...


55. Microclimate measurements (air temperature, light levels and relative humidity) near vegetation at Botany Bay, Granite Harbour [K024_1999_2000_NZ_1]
Several data loggers were deployed in and around plants in order to obtain more information of conditions at the plant level to be able to determine if plants performance characteristics are adapted ...


56. An estimate of the production rate of 14CO due to natural cosmic ray background [K087_1994_1995_NZ_1]
14CO measurements in cylinders exposed in Antarctica were used to estimate the production rate of 14CO due to natural cosmic ray background with comparisons with similar exposures in the Southern ...


57. Annual measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and isotopic ratios from Arrival Heights, Ross Island since December 1996 [K087_1996_2008_NZ_1]
Carbon dioxide (CO2) in the earth's atmosphere is considered a trace gas and also a greenhouse gas. Levels of CO2 in the atmosphere are increasing due to anthropogenic activity. Small dry whole air ...


58. Annual measurements of atmospheric carbon monoxide concentrations and isotopic ratios from Arrival Heights, Ross Island since June 1991 [K087_1991_2008_NZ_1]
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a trace gas in the atmosphere. Although it occurs naturally in the atmosphere at very low concentrations, it may contribute to the greenhouse effect and concentrations are ...


59. Annual measurements of atmospheric methane concentrations and isotopic ratios from Arrival Heights, Ross Island since November 1989 [K087_1989_2008_NZ_1]
The atmospheric trace gas, methane (CH4), affects the radiative heat balance of the earth. The sources of atmospheric methane are not well understood. Large air samples (1000-1400 litres) of methane ...


60. Annual measurements of the stable carbon composition of carbon dioxide 13CO2 in the atmosphere from Arrival Heights, Ross Island since March 1997 [K087_1997_2008_NZ_1]
Measurements of the stable carbon composition of carbon dioxide (13CO2) are collected by small dry whole air samples (2L) annually (between 12 to 18 samples since March 1997) by a pump system from ...


61. Atmospheric air samples from aboard supply aircrafts operating between Christchurch, New Zealand and McMurdo Sound investigating the atmospheric chemistry and reactions between carbon monoxide, methane and ozone [K087_1996_1998_NZ_1]
Large whole air samples collected from a compressor system aboard the supply aircrafts operating between Christchurch and McMurdo incorporated measurements of ozone. In association with concentration ...


62. Determination of wind flow patterns and analysis of snow samples for airborne pollutants around Scott Base [K088_1994_1995_NZ_1]
The transport of pollutants from an occupied Antarctic Station (Scott Base) to the surrounding snow was investigated. Density balloons were tracked constantly at low levels throughout the area in ...


63. Experimental measurements of the production rate of 14CO in high pressure air samples [K087_2003_2004_NZ_1]
Air samples are collected from Arrival Heights for analysis of trace gas concentration and isotopic composition throughout the year. The high pressure samples that are collected from February through ...


64. Isotopic analysis of methane and carbon monoxide and other trace gases within firn cores from the Polar Plateau [K087_1998_2008_NZ_1]
Firn cores were sampled from Law Dome, East Antarctic Plateau and the Megadunes site on the Polar Plateau, and air samples within were analysed for methane and carbon monoxide and other trace gas ...


65. Measurement of the characteristics of the intensity and polaristion of skylight at two different sites in Antarctica, differeing in albedo [K041_1992_1993_NZ_1]
The enhancement of UVB radiation falling onto the different land surfaces was investigated. Previous measurements (in the 1990 season) found low maximum polarisation of sky light and strong low azimuth ...


66. Measurements of carbon dioxide concentrations from the atmosphere via equipment aboard supply aircrafts operating between Christchurch, New Zealand and McMurdo Sound [K087_1996_2008_NZ_2]
Carbon dioxide (CO2) in the earth's atmosphere is considered a trace gas and also a greenhouse gas. Levels of CO2 in the atmosphere are increasing due to anthropogenic activity. An automated flask ...


67. Measurements of carbon monoxide concentrations and isotopic ratios from the atmosphere via equipment aboard supply aircrafts operating between Christchurch, New Zealand and McMurdo Sound [K087_1991_2008_NZ_2]
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a trace gas in the atmosphere. The use of the radioactive isotope 14C in carbon monoxide is useful for determining the oxidative capacity via oxidation by hydroxyl (OH). Large ...


68. Measurements of methane concentrations and isotopic ratios from the atmosphere via equipment aboard supply aircrafts operating between Christchurch, New Zealand and McMurdo Sound [K087_1989_2008_NZ_2]
The atmospheric trace gas, methane (CH4), affects the radiative heat balance of the earth. Measurements of the carbon and hydrogen isotopes in atmospheric methane are used to relate this climatically ...


69. Measurements of the UV radiation (Blue, Violet, UVA and UVB) falling on sea ice in McMurdo Sound, quantification of sea ice algae and the effect of snow thickness on the transmissivity of sea ice to UV radiation [K041_1995_1996_NZ_1]
The relative amounts of visible, near and far UV radiation (Blue, Violet, UVA and UVB) falling onto sea ice in McMurdo Sound was measured at a site well cantered in the ice, i.e. not at the ice edge. ...


70. Measurements of the mixing ratios of the C2-C10 non-methane hydrocarbons from Arrival Heights since 1990 [K087_1990_2008_NZ_1]
A large variety of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) are found throughout the troposphere in varying concentrations. The reaction of a NMHC with the hydroxyl (OH) molecule causes atmospheric oxidation. ...


71. Measurements of the polarisation of the Antarctic sky from the sea ice edge at Cape Bird and from a ship journey from Hobart to McMurdo Sound [K041_1997_1998_NZ_1]
The polarisation of the Antarctic sky was captured near the sea ice edge at Cape Bird to complement previous studies of the sky polarisation seen at Wellington (New Zealand), Scott Base, Tent Island ...


72. Measurements of the production of 14C in cylinders in Antarctica [K087_1992_1993_NZ_1]
In order to measure the production of 14C via 14N (n,p) 14C, cylinders with ultra pure air doped with dead CO were exposed at Scott Base and the South Pole.


73. Measurements of the transmission of UV light to infrared light through different samples of snow around Scott Base [K041_1997_1998_NZ_2]
The transmission of light through snow depends not only on the cleanliness but also on the size of the snow particles. The transmission properties are directly related to the reflection properties ...


74. Measurements of tropospheric aerosols and meteorological data in remote marine region in Antarctica to compare with New Zealand measurements to help understand the sulphur cycles influence on global climate [K176_1991_1992_NZ_1]
Dimethylsulphide (DMS) and sub-micron atmospheric particles are key components in the atmospheric sulphur cycle. DMS produced by biota in the oceans is thought to be the main source of atmospheric ...


75. The concentration of combustion engine particulates, the organic fraction of the particulates and the sources of the particulates identified by isotopic analysis from snow and ice samples near Scott Base [K011_2000_2001_NZ_1]
The likely sources of organic pollutants in Antarctica are aircrafts, generators and vehicular emissions. Engines and generators emit organic rich particulates due to incomplete fuel combustion that ...


76. The concentration of combustion engine particulates, the organic fraction of the particulates and the sources of the particulates identified by isotopic analysis from snow and ice samples near Scott Base [K016_1993_1994_NZ_1]
The McMurdo Dry Valleys contain negligible snow and ice, while being surrounded by other glaciated valleys and snow covered mountains. The mechanisms causing the valleys and maintaining them were ...


77. Wind profiles of the Wright Valley using an acoustic wind profiler measuring wind speed and direction and dry bulb temperature [K016_1990_1991_NZ_1]
A new acoustic wind profiler was tested in the Wright Valley on the slopes of Mount Odin. This instrument may have the advantage of providing continuous vertical profiles of wind speed and direction ...


78. Annual measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide concentrations from Arrival Heights, Ross Island since May 1996 [K087_1996_2008_NZ_3]
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is the main naturally occurring regulator of stratospheric ozone and is therefore a major greenhouse gas. Small whole dry air samples (2L) are collected annually (between 12 to ...


79. Measurements of nitrous oxide concentrations from the atmosphere via equipment aboard supply aircrafts operating between Christchurch, New Zealand and McMurdo Sound [K087_1996_2008_NZ_4]
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is the main naturally occurring regulator of stratospheric ozone and is therefore a major greenhouse gas. An automated flask sampling system is used to collect small atmospheric ...


80. Hydrological and meteorological measurements (air temperature (at 1.5m and 10m), relative humidity, windspeed and direction, net radiation, solar radiation and snow heat flux) on the McMurdo Ice Shelf [K162_1990_1991_NZ_1]
Meteorological and hydrological variables were measured in the ablation zone of the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) to characterise and quantify the energy and water budgets of the MIS in areas where biological ...


81. Scott Base Tide Gauge records since 2001 [K042_2001_2008_NZ_1]
A sea level recorder and barometer was installed at Scott Base in January 2001 initially to support oceanographic and hazards research (including tsunami) and to support hydrographic surveying. The ...


82. Analysis of isotopic ratios of water vapour samples from the stratosphere to determine polar stratospheric cloud formation and disintigration [K087_2001_2006_NZ_1]
The transport of water vapor near the tropopause and lower stratosphere, e.g. The inflow of tropospheric water vapor into the stratosphere and the vertical redistribution of stratospheric water vapor ...


83. Measurements of atmospheric aerosols from air and snow samples and meteorological measurements taken from a remote site on the Ross Ice Shelf [K093_1989_1990_NZ_1]
The chemistry of air and snow at a remote site on the Ross Ice Shelf was conducted to study atmospheric aerosol particulates which are of interest as they may be important regulators of climate and ...


84. Measurements of carbon dioxide concentrations and isotopic ratios from air samples collected at the surface and at altitude between New Zealand and the South Pole to determine if the Southern Ocean is a carbon sink [K087_1998_2004_NZ_1]
Carbon dioxide concentrations between New Zealand and the South Pole were found to vary for periods of several years suggesting that the Southern Ocean is acting as a sink. The role of the Southern ...


85. Measurements of the shielding against UVA by protective pigments in the moss Bryum subrotundifolium at Botany Bay, Granite Harbour [K024_2000_2001_NZ_2]
A new chlorophyll fluorescence system, UVA PAM allowed the protective shield against UVA radiation to be measured in the moss Bryum subrotundifolium. An area of the moss was heavily shaded for 10 ...


86. Measurements of trace substances (e.g. Nitrate, sulphate, anions, cations, methane, etc) from air and snow samples from a remote area on the east Antarctic plateau [K093_1990_1991_NZ_1]
Samples of air and snow were collected at a remote site on the east Antarctic plateau for determination of a number of trace atmospheric components to better understand the processes by which atmospheric ...


87. Soil, relic ice, permafrost, Hart Ash and granite samples from the Lower Victoria Valley, Beacon Valley, near the Meserve Glacier in Wright Valley, and Kennar Valley to determine the deposition of this ice [K047_2004_2006_NZ_1]
Ancient glacial ice that has stagnated and lies buried underneath rock debris has been found in the Beacon Valley and more recently in several other valleys. This ice poses the possibility of obtaining ...


88. The use of computer models to predict changes in patterns and processes of terrestrial ecosystems in Antarctica: real data from automatic weather stations and digital cameras, dust samplers and soil samples [K024_2007_2008_NZ_1]
Field work was carried out to add to the creation of a dynamic geographic information system in which the specific observations about patterns and processes of the physical environment, plus observations ...


89. Obtaining action spectrum and biological weighting functions for UVR effects on larvae of a suite of Antarctic invertebrates, McMurdo Sound [K068_2004_2006_NZ_1]
The effect of UVR on biological systems is wavelength dependent. Action spectrum for DNA damage is an essential component of understanding the effects of increased UVB on a range of Antarctic invertebrate ...


90. The ability to photorepair UV damaged DNA and the rate of photoreactivation in Antarctic species compared with temperate and tropical species [K068_2004_2006_NZ_2]
Time course experimental exposure of the Antarctic sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeriembryos to UVR was carried out in a lab to examine the kinetics of UVR induced damage to DNA. Embryos (freshly fertilized ...


91. The ability to photorepair UV damaged DNA and the rate of photoreactivation in two Antarctic Starfish Odontaster validus and Odontaster meridionalis compared with a New Zealand species Odontaster benhami [K068_2004_2006_NZ_3]
Photorepair rates in New Zealand temperate species of echinoderms show a much higher DNA photorepair than the Antarctic species Sterechinus neumayeri. To examine the reason for low rates of DNA photorepair ...


92. The degree that UV-B absorbing compounds provide UV-R protection in embryos and larvae of the sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri: A comparison with adults [K068_2002_2003_NZ_1]
The degree that UV-B absorbing compounds provide UV-R protection was examined in four early developmental stages of the sea urchine Sterechinus neumayeri from Cape Armitage, McMurdo Sound. Adult Sterechinus ...


93. Short term climate measurements and permafrost and soil moisture content of coastal mountain zones: Coombs Hills, Convoy Range and Asgard Range [K150_1994_1995_NZ_1]
Permafrost and soil moisture properties were measured at 15 sites in the Coombs Hills and Northwind Glacier and from 2 additional sites in the Asgard Range and the lower Barwick Valley to determine ...


94. An annual cycle of cloud condensation nuclei concentration in the Ross Sea Region [K173_1992_1993_NZ_1]
A cycle of cloud condensation nuclei concentration in the Ross Sea Region was collected by installing and running a CCN monitor at Scott Base. The results contributed to the Southern Hemisphere record ...


95. Analysis of air samples for trace levels of hydrocarbons, fluorocarbons and light hydrocarbons [K173_1984_1987_NZ_1]
The importance of minor atmospheric constituents to the global climate is well established but knowledge of their chemistry, distribution (by latitude, altitude and season) is sparse. This project ...


96. Atmospheric measurement from four sites in the Ross Sea Region investigating gases, aerosol properties and local weather conditions [K173_1987_1990_NZ_1]
Gases, aerosol properties and local weather was studied at sites around Ross Island and in McMurdo Sound as part of a programme to describe the properties of the atmospheric aerosol (and gases), to ...


97. Measurements of the amount of UV and visible radiation falling onto sea ice and the effects of enhanced UV radiation levels on sea ice algae [K136_1991_1992_NZ_1]
Sea ice algae are speculated to be considerably vulnerable to the effects of enhanced UV from the ozone hole during the Antarctic spring. The amount of UV and visible radiation falling onto the sea ...


98. Mercury concentrations of snow samples from the McMurdo Ice Shelf and the Antarctic plateau [K092_1987_1989_NZ_1]
Analysis of mercury concentrations from snow samples from Antarctica should indicate global fluxes of mercury to the atmosphere, since it is a remote location away from any regional mercury sources. ...


99. Altitude profile measurements of nitric acid (HNO3) using balloon packages flown into the stratosphere during the autumn, winter and spring [K085_1993_1995_NZ_1]
In addition to ground based measurements of nitric acid (HNO3), altitude profiles of nitric acid was conducted during the autumn, winter and spring using a series of balloon packs flown into the stratosphere. ...


100. Column and vertical profiles of chlorine monoxide from a heterodyne spectrometer [K085_1996_2008_NZ_2]
A microwave experiment was installed at Scott Base to measure microwave emission of atmospheric chlorine monoxide (ClO) near 1.1 mm wavelength by a heterodyne spectrometer. The heterodyne techniques ...


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