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51. Holocene climate history from ice cores, snow profiles, weather and glacier investigations (topography, mass balance and bedrock mapping) of the Victoria Lower Glacier, Victoria Land Coast, Antarctica [K049_1999_2008_NZ_2]   PARENT DIF
To understand the drivers and consequences of climate change on timescales important to humans, the paleoclimate of ice cores, the glacial system and local climate patterns were analysed from two ...


52. Holocene climate history from investigations of the glacial system, ice cores and local climate patterns from Skinner Saddle, Victoria Land Coast Antarctica [K049_1999_2008_NZ_10]   PARENT DIF
To understand the drivers and consequences of climate change on timescales important to humans, the paleoclimate of ice cores, the glacial system and local climate patterns were analysed from Skinner ...


53. Holocene climate history obtained from ice cores, snow profiles (density, chemistry, structure), snow samples (dust origin) and climate measurements from the Baldwin Glacier, Victoria Land Coast, Antarctica [K049_1999_2008_NZ_3]   PARENT DIF
To understand the drivers and consequences of climate change on timescales important to humans, the paleoclimate of ice cores, the glacial system and local climate patterns were analysed from the ...


54. Holocene climate history obtained from snow profiles (chemistry, dust flux, temperature, structure), firn cores and climate measurements from the Wilson Piedmont Glacier, Victoria Land Coast, Antarctica [K049_1999_2008_NZ_4]   PARENT DIF
To understand the drivers and consequences of climate change on timescales important to humans, the paleoclimate of ice cores, the glacial system and local climate patterns were analysed from the ...


55. Investigation of the Holocene climate history from analysis of the glacial system, ice cores and snow samples from the Whitehall Glacier, Victoria Land Coast, Antarctica [K049_1999_2008_NZ_9]   PARENT DIF
To understand the drivers and consequences of climate change on timescales important to humans, the paleoclimate of ice cores, the glacial system and local climate patterns were analysed from the ...


56. New Zealand International Transantarctic Scientific Expedition (NZ ITASE) - Climate variability measured from ice cores taken along the Victoria Land Coast [K049_1999_2008_NZ_1]   CHILD DIFs
The climate of the Victoria Land Coast is created by the interacting influences of the Dry Valleys, East Antarctic Ice Sheet and the Ross Sea. Slight changes can significantly alter local weather ...


57. Snow profiles (analysed for snow chemistry, isotope ratios dust flux and mineralogy) along a transect from the coast towards the East Antarctic Ice Sheet to interpret Holocene climate records [K049_1999_2008_NZ_5]   PARENT DIF
In order to interpret the climate record contained in the ice cores from Victoria Lower Glacier it was necessary to trace air mass trajectories to distinguish between marine and continental influences. ...


58. GPS surveying to obtain ice flow velocities for the southern McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica, 2002-2005. [K114_2002_2003_NZ_1]   PARENT DIF
In the 2002/03 field season (event K114), 34 marker poles were established in a 2.5 km-spaced grid over the southern McMurdo Ice Shelf (SMIS), and these were positioned using differential ...


59. Geophysical investigations (seismic, aero and ground base magnetic, gravity, GPR and bathymetry surveys) of the tectonic, sedimentary and volcanic history of the Victoria Land Basing - site survey for ANDRILL project [K001_ANDRILL_SITE_SURVEYS]
A multi-national team (Germany, Italy, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the USA) undertook seismic reflection, aeromagnetic surveys, ground-based magnetic and gravity measurements to image the ...


60. Studies of the surface strain of Erebus Glacier Tongue to determine the process of calving [K009_1977_1978_NZ_3]
The surface deformation of the Erebus Glacier Tongue was measured in order to elucidate the calving mechanisms for the formation of icebergs. Surface strain, surface tilt, surface velocity and long ...


61. The physical properties of both sea ice and floating glacier ice of the Erebus Ice Tongue [K009_1980_1981_NZ_1]
Three separate strain sites at marked positions on a map were set up with numerous poles erected and revisited periodically on and around the Erebus ice tongue glacier. A helicopter was used to provide ...


62. Glacial movement and sedimentation rate of the Mackay Glacier, Granite Harbour [K042_1982_1983_NZ_1]
Granite Harbour can be considered a 'closed basin' which collects sediment deposited from the Mackay Glacier Tongue. Study of this sedimentation system enables a more precise interpretation of the ...


63. Micromorphology analysis of sediment samples from the Taylor Glacier snout to determine information on the microstructures and the process of formation of a moraine linear ridge [K042_1999_2000_NZ_2]
Three spatially variable micromorphology samples were taken from a discontinuous moraine linear ridge at the Taylor glacier snout to provide unknown information on the microstructures of this deposition ...


64. The structure and origin of the Strand Moraines, McMurdo Sound [K042_1983_1984_NZ_1]
Geological work on the Strand Moraines, an area believed to be partly grounded ice cored moraine, that may be a relic of the Last Glaciation 20,000-50,000 years ago, was conducted. A study to account ...


65. GPR survey of the Wright Lower, Victoria Upper and Suess Glacier margins, in the McMurdo Dry Valleys [K064_2004_2005_NZ_1]
The margins of the Wright Lower, Victoria Upper and Suess glaciers were surveyed using a pulse Ekko GPR. The GPR survey of the morphology and structure of the apron of the Victoria Upper glacier was ...


66. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys of a an ice rise on the southern McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica. [K065_2004_2005_NZ]
A topographic rise was observed on satellite imagery and ground traverses of the southern McMurdo Ice Shelf, part way between the SW tip of Black Island and the north shore of Minna Bluff was investigated ...


67. The modern sedimentation regime at the snout of the Ferrar Glacier, New Harbour [K042_1985_1986_NZ_1]
The modern sedimentation regime at the snout of the Ferrar Glacier was investigated for comparison with the upper sediments cored in the CIROS-2 hole and to determine the modern sedimentation processes ...


68. A mathmatical model of population dynamics to explain changes in biodiversity of microorganisms in ice covered marine environments [K043_2006_2007_NZ_1]
Physical, geographic and biological data were linked into a mathmatical model of population dynamics to integrate and explain the changes in biodiversity of phytoplankton, bacteria and cyanobacteria ...


69. Determining the influence of waves on the physical behaviour of the sea ice with mechanically generated waves [K131_2000_2002_NZ_1]
The interaction of the ocean wave field with the sea ice was investigated by creating a wave generating machine to generate waves which have clearly defined parameters such as amplitude and frequency. ...


70. GPR, electromagnetic and spectral analysis of surface wave surveys on the Pram Point pressure ridges and surrounding area [K054_2001_2002_NZ_1]
Experiments using GPR around Scott Base showed the GPR could detect crevasses on the McMurdo Ice Shelf, in an area near Scott Base where distinctive surface undulations or 'pressure rollers' (pressure ...


71. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and Photogrammetry, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), electromagnetic and topography data of polygonal patterned ground in the Victoria and Beacon Valleys [K054_2006_2007_NZ_1]
To understand the subsurface properties of polygonal patterned ground (PPG) and to attempt to resolve competing theories of PPG activity, non-invasive, non-destructive geophysical methods were used ...


72. Investigation into the relationship between floe size distribution (FSD), differential floe motion and jostling, and ocean wave fields penetrating the Ross Sea marginal ice zones [K131_1998_1999_NZ_1]
The relationship between floe size distribution, differential floe motion and jostling and ocean wave fields penetrating the Ross Sea marginal ice zone was investigated using ship borne access to ...


73. Mathematical modelling of the optical behaviour sea ice in McMurdo Sound to determine the partitioning of radiant energy [K131_1998_1999_NZ_2]
Optical beam-spread profiles were measured on sea ice from McMurdo Sound, with a view to understanding the role of microstructure in the scattering of light in sea ice. These experiments were performed ...


74. Measurements of high amplitude/low cycle fatigue of sea ice in conjunction with the characteristic length of sea ice, temperature and salinity profiles and acoustic emissions [K131_1989_1998_NZ_1]
The high amplitude/low cycle fatigue properties of sea ice in situ at high strain were investigated by developing a cantilever system of sea ice beams and using hydraulic equipment to exercise these ...


75. Measurements of sea ice physical properties and ice strain and wave pattern generated by a load moving over sea ice near Tent Island, McMurdo Sound [K131_1985_1986_NZ_1]
An experiment designed to study, in detail, the wave pattern generated by a load moving over sea ice was conducted on a flat area of snow free, shore fast sea ice about 2km west of Tent Island in ...


76. The thermal conductivity and diffusivity of first year sea ice measured as a temperature depth profile in developing sea ice during the winter months in McMurdo Sound [K131_1994_1998_NZ_2]
Measurements of heat flows and hence thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity in sea ice was measured in the absence of thermal radiation (i.e. sunlight, which dumps heat at depth in the ice and ...


77. The use of nuclear magnetic resonance to measure water content (a component of brine volume) and the diffusivity of liquid water in sea ice [K131_1994_1998_NZ_1]
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is able to discriminate signals arising from nuclei hosted by molecules in the solid state, from those in a liquid state and was therefore used to examine the state ...


78. Thick and thin sections and salinity and temperature profiles from natural refrozen and artificially refrozen sea ice cracks [K131_2001_2003_NZ_1]
Large marine organisms, specifically foraminifers and copepods, were collected from the sea ice, brine and water column from thin ice north of Beaufort Island at the beginning of the warming period ...


79. An ASTER Digital Elevation Model (DEM) for the Darwin-Hatherton Glacial System [K053_2006_2007_NZ_1]
In order to understand how the West Antarctic Ice Sheet may respond to global climate change in the future, its current nature and how it has responded to climate change in the past has been investigated. ...


80. Measurements of the effects of debris on the mechanical behaviour (deformation and motion) of ice of the Taylor Glacier, Taylor Valley, Antarctica [K053_1992_2000_NZ_1]
Debris-rich ice is a commonly observed basal ice facies found at the base of many temperate and polar glaciers and at the base of cores through major ice sheets. The effects of the presence of debris ...


81. Experiments to determine the extent to which the behaviour of individual faults alters the properties of the sea ice sheet as a whole [K131_1998_2001_NZ_1]
Sea ice beams were cut using a technique already developed to stress sea ice to fracture. Twenty two beams were cut in total. Mechanical measurements and characterisation of the resulting cracks was ...


82. Long term data from strain meters placed on the Erebus Glacier Tongue and surrounding sea ice measuring travelling flexural waves and strain measurements [K131_1983_1990_NZ_1]
Using a strain meter with a 500mm gauge length, the elastic and plastic strain of the Erebus Glacier tongue was measured as it moves in response to waves and swells present in the surrounding sea. ...


83. Measurement of electrical resistivity of sea ice in McMurdo Sound [K131_1984_1985_NZ_1]
The electrical resistivity of sea ice was measured in situ at two locations in McMurdo Sound: 1km south of Scott Base and 1km northwest of Tent Island. Measurements were made at frequencies of 100Hz ...


84. Physico-chemical properties of sea ice in relation to biological activity from ice cores taken along a transect in McMurdo Sound [K131_1999_2003_NZ_1]
The interactions between biological activity and physico-chemical characteristics of landfast first year sea ice were investigated in McMurdo Sound as a multiparametric analysis of the physico-chemical ...


85. Strain meter measurements of sea ice under the influence of a moving load from the sea ice runway near McMurdo Station [K131_1983_1985_NZ_1]
Using a strain meter, with a 500 mm gauge length, the influence of a moving load on the strain produced in sea ice was measured firstly by driving a vehicle (ford pickup) on the sea ice runway near ...


86. Strain meter measurements on an actively breaking ice edge to investigate sea wave/ice interactions and the break up processes of sea ice [K131_1994_1998_NZ_3]
The interaction between the ocean wave field and the sea ice in the marginal fast ice zone was measured by first designing and testing a prototype strain meter especially designed for operation near ...


87. Temperature and salinity profiles of the water column during platelet ice formation and analysis of the structure and isotopic content of platelet ice [K131_1999_2000_NZ_2]
Platelet ice is a particular sea ice type that is prevalent in McMurdo Sound, probably due to the proximity of the Ross Ice Shelf. There are many details about the formation of platelet ice which ...


88. The permeability of sea ice to brine from fast ice at Davis Station and McMurdo Sound [K131_1999_2000_NZ_1]
The permeability of sea ice to brine under naturally occurring conditions was investigated. The data is important for determining the rate at which nutrients are supplied to sea ice algae and the ...


89. Using rock and sediment samples from raised beach ridges and glacier moraines for dating to determine the extent of the ice sheet during the last glacial maximum [K043_1996_1998_NZ_2]
Raised beaches on the coast of McMurdo Sound have developed since the last glacial maximum approximately 20,000 year ago when the ice sheets were at their greatest extent. The weight of the overlying ...


90. Baseline information on both the modern processes operating on Antarctic beaches and the development of beach ridges in relation to the last glaciation ice retreat and isostatic rebound [K043_1996_1998_NZ_1]
Beaches in McMurdo Sound have developed since the last glaciation when ice sheets were at their maximum. The weight of the overlying ice, depressed the land, which has slowly rebounded forming a series ...


91. Tropospheric Ozone Depletion and Bromine Explosions [K084_2006_2007_NZ]
Tropospheric ozone depletion events during the Antarctic spring of 06/07 and 07/08 were observed. DOAS measurements of near surface BrO and O3 concentrations were made at three locations: Cape Bird ...


92. The interactions between a polar glacier tongue (Mackay Glacier Tongue and Blue Glacier), sediment and sea water at the grounding line using an ROV [K042_1991_1992_NZ_1]
The Mackay Glacier Tongue and Blue Glacier was explored with a submersible remotely operated vehicle (ROV) to determine whether sediment was being shielded by freezing or melting out onto the sea ...


93. Latitudinal Gradient Project (LGP) [K002_Latitudinal_Gradient_Project_LGP]
The Latitudinal Gradient Project (LGP) ("http://www.lgp.aq/") is aimed at increasing the understanding of the coastal marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems that exist along the Victoria Land ...


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