Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Daily Grid, Set1Entry ID: GES_DISC_GSSTF_2c
Abstract: These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c (GSSTF2c) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie (UMBC/GEST, NASA/GSFC), converted to HDF-EOS5 format. The stewardship of this HDF-EOS5 dataset is part of the MEaSUREs project,
GSSTF version 2b (Shie et al. 2010, Shie et al. 2009) generally agreed better with available ship measurements obtained from several field experiments in 1999 than GSSTF2 (Chou et al. 2003) did in all three flux components, i.e., latent heat flux [LHF], sensible heat flux [SHF], and wind stress [WST] (Shie 2010a,b). GSSTF2b was also found favorable, particularly for LHF and SHF, in an intercomparison study that accessed eleven products of ocean surface turbulent fluxes, in which GSSTF2 and GSSTF2b were also included (Brunke et al. 2011). However, a temporal trend appeared in the globally averaged LHF of GSSTF2b, particularly post year 2000. Shie (2010a,b) attributed the LHF trend to the trends originally found in the globally averaged SSM/I Tb's, i.e., Tb(19v), Tb(19h), Tb(22v) and Tb(37v), which were used to retrieve the GSSTF2b bottom-layer (the lowest atmospheric 500 meter layer) precipitable water [WB], then the surface specific humidity [Qa], and subsequently LHF. The SSM/I Tb's trends were recently found mainly due to the variations/trends of Earth incidence angle (EIA) in the SSM/I satellites (Hilburn and Shie 2011a,b). They have further developed an algorithm properly resolving the EIA problem and successfully reproducing the corrected Tb's by genuinely removing the "artifactitious" trends. An upgraded production of GSSTF2c (Shie et al. 2011) using the corrected Tb's has been completed very recently.
GSSTF2c shows a significant improvement in the resultant WB, and subsequently the retrieved LHF - the temporal trends of WB and LHF are greatly reduced after the proper adjustments/treatments in the SSM/I Tb's (Shie and Hilburn 2011). In closing, we believe that the insightful "Rice Cooker Theory" by Shie (2010a,b), i.e., "To produce a good and trustworthy 'output product' (delicious 'cooked rice') depends not only on a well-functioned 'model/algorithm' ('rice cooker'), but also on a genuine and reliable 'input data' ('raw rice') with good quality" should help us better comprehend the impact of the improved Tb on the subsequently retrieved LHF of GSSTF2c.
This is the Daily (24-hour) product; data are projected to equidistant Grid that covers the globe at 1x1 degree cell size, resulting in data arrays of 360x180 size.
A finer resolution, 0.25 deg, of this product has been released as Version 3.
The GSSTF, Version 2c, daily fluxes have first been produced for each individual available SSM/I satellite tapes (e.g., F08, F10, F11, F13, F14 and F15). Then, the Combined daily fluxes are produced by averaging (equally weighted) over available flux data/files from various satellites. These Combined daily flux data are considered as the "final" GSSTF, Version 2c, and are stored in this HDF-EOS5 collection.
There are only one set of GSSTF, Version 2c, Combined data, "Set1"
It contains 9 variables:
"E" 'latent heat flux' (W/m**2),
"STu" 'zonal wind stress' (N/m**2),
"STv" 'meridional wind stress' (N/m**2),
"H" 'sensible heat flux' (W/m**2),
"Qair" 'surface air (~10-m) specific humidity' (g/kg),
"WB" 'lowest 500-m precipitable water' (g/cm**2),
"U" '10-m wind speed' (m/s),
"DQ" 'sea-air humidity difference' (g/kg)
"Tot_Precip_Water" 'total precipitable water' (g/cm**2)
The double-quoted labels are the short names of the data fields in the HDF-EOS5 files.
The "individual" daily flux data files, produced for each individual satellite, are also available in HDF-EOS5, although from different collections:
GES_DISC_GSSTF_xxx_2c, where xxx are the individual satellites (F08, F10, etc..)
The input data sets used for this recent GSSTF production include the upgraded and improved datasets such as the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) Version-6 (V6) product of brightness temperature [Tb], total precipitable water [W], and wind speed [U] produced by the Wentz of Remote Sensing Systems (RSS), as well as the NCEP/DOE Reanalysis-2 (R2) product of sea skin temperature [SKT], 2-meter air temperature [Tair], and sea level pressure [SLP]. Relevant to this MEaSUREs project, these are converted to HDF-EOS5, and are stored in the GES_DISC_GSSTF_NCEP_2c collection.
Please use these products with care and proper citations, i.e., properly indicating your applications with, e.g., "using the combined 2001 data file of Set1" or "using the 2001 F13 data file".
The following list summarizes individual satellites used to produce the Combined SET1.
1987/07-12: F08 (Note: 1987/12 is filled with missing value due to data scarcity)
1990/01-12: F08 (Note: F10 started in 1990/12, but N/A due to data scarcity)
F10/ F11/ F13/
1995/01-12: 01-04: F10+F11
F10/ F11/ F13/
F10/ F11/ F13/ F14/
1997/01-12: 01-04: F10+F11+F13
F11/ F13/ F14/
F11/ F13/ F14/
F11/ F13/ F14/ F15/
2000/01-12: 01/01-05/16: F11+F13+F14+F15
F13/ F14/ F15/
F13/ F14/ F15/
F13/ F14/ F15/
F13/ F14/ F15/
F13/ F14/ F15/
F13/ F14/ F15/
F13/ F14/ F15/
F13/ F14/ F15/
2008/01-12: 01-07: F13+F14
(a) For Y2006, Y2007 and Y2008, the current Combined daily data files do not include the F15 Individual daily data files due to problematic calibration in F15. The Combined daily files will be updated for those three years once an improved set of Individual daily data files are produced using corrected and updated SSM/I F15 input files.
(b) The current Combined daily data files are produced with at most 4 combined satellites,
i.e., F10, F11, F13 and F14 for May-Nov 1997,
and F11, F13, F14 and F15 for Jan-May 2000.
Parameters contained in the data files include the following:
DQ|sea-air humidity difference|(g/kg)
E|latent heat flux|(W/m^^2)
H|sensible heat flux|(W/m^^2)
Qair|surface air (~10-m) specific humidity|(g/kg)
STu|zonal wind stress|(N/m^^2)
STv|meridional wind stress|(N/m^^2)
Tot_Precip_Water|total precipitable water|(g/cm^^2)
U|10-m wind speed|(m/s)
WB|lowest 500-m precipitable water|(g/cm^^2)
End of parameter information
Purpose: The daily temporal and one-degree spatial resolution of the product can be used to examining climate variability at these scales. The global water cycle's provision of water to terrestrial storage, reservoirs, and rivers rests upon the global excess of evaporation to precipitation over the oceans. Variations in the magnitude of this ocean evaporation excess will ultimately lead to variations in ... the amount of freshwater that is transported (by the atmosphere) and precipitated over continental regions. The air-sea fluxes of momentum, radiation, and freshwater (precipitation-evaporation) play a very essential role in a wide variety of atmospheric and oceanic problems (e.g., oceanic evaporation contributes to the net fresh water input to the oceans and drives the upper ocean density structure and consequently the circulation of the oceans). Information on these fluxes is crucial in understanding the interactions between the atmosphere and oceans, global energy, and water cycle variability, and in improving model simulations of climate variations.
The GSSTF dataset has been widely used by scientific communities for global energy and water cycle research and regional and short period data analysis since its official release in 2000/2001. Accurate sea surface fluxes measurements are crucial to understanding the global water and energy cycles. The oceanic evaporation that is a major component of the global oceanic fresh water flux is particularly useful to predicting oceanic circulation and transport. Remote sensing is a valuable tool for global monitoring of these flux measurements. The GSSTF algorithm has been developed and applied to remote sensing research and applications. We are looking forward to serving the scientific communities with another useful dataset in GSSTF2c.
Data Set Citation
Dataset Originator/Creator: Shie, C.-L., K. Hilburn, L. S. Chiu, R. Adler, I-I Lin, E. Nelkin, and J. Ardizzone
Dataset Title: Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Daily Grid, Set1
Dataset Series Name: GSSTF
Dataset Release Date: November 18, 2011
Dataset Release Place: Greenbelt, MD, USA
Dataset Publisher: Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC)
Dataset Editor: Andrey Savtchenko
Issue Identification: GSSTF_2c
Data Presentation Form: Digital Science Data
Other Citation Details: http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/daac-bin/DataHoldingsMEASURES.pl?PROGRAM_List=ChungLinShieOnline Resource: http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/datacollection/GSSTF_2c.shtml
Start Date: 1987-07-09Stop Date: 2009-01-01
Latitude Resolution: 1 degree
Longitude Resolution: 1 degree
Horizontal Resolution Range: 100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees
Temporal Resolution: 24 hr
Temporal Resolution Range: Daily - < Weekly
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE > SEA LEVEL PRESSURE
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE > SURFACE TEMPERATURE > AIR TEMPERATURE
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE > SURFACE TEMPERATURE > SKIN TEMPERATURE
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE > SURFACE TEMPERATURE
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR > EVAPORATION
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR > HUMIDITY
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR > PRECIPITABLE WATER
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR > WATER VAPOR
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC WINDS > SURFACE WINDS
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC WINDS > TURBULENCE
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC WINDS > WIND STRESS
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION > ATMOSPHERIC HEATING
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION > HEAT FLUX
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION > RADIATIVE FLUX
OCEANS > OCEAN HEAT BUDGET > CONDUCTION
OCEANS > OCEAN HEAT BUDGET > EVAPORATION
OCEANS > OCEAN HEAT BUDGET > HEAT FLUX
OCEANS > OCEAN PRESSURE > SEA LEVEL PRESSURE
OCEANS > OCEAN TEMPERATURE > SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE
OCEANS > OCEAN WINDS > SURFACE WINDS
OCEANS > OCEAN WINDS > TURBULENCE
OCEANS > OCEAN WINDS > WIND STRESS
Data Set Progress
Distribution Media: FTP/HTTP
Distribution Size: 4 MB
Distribution Format: HDF-EOS5
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Email: Andrey.Savtchenko at nasa.gov
Distributed Active Archive Center Global Change Data Center Code 610.2 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Province or State: MD
Postal Code: 20771
Email: chung-lin.shie-1 at nasa.gov
Brunke, A. M., Z. Wang, X. Zeng, M. Bosilovich, and C.-L. Shie, 2011: An assessment of the uncertainties in ocean surface turbulent fluxes in 11 reanalysis, satellite-derived, and combined global data sets. J. Climate, Vol. 24, 5469-5493. doi: 10.1175/2011JCLI4223.1
Chiu, L. S., S. Gao, and C.-L. Shie, 2012: Oceanic evaporation: Trends and variations (book chapter title), Book title: Remote ... Sensing / Book 2. InTech - Open Access Publisher. (accepted)
Chiu, L. S., S. Gao, and C.-L. Shie, 2012: Satellite-based ocean surface turbulent fluxes (book chapter title), Book title: Satellite-based Applications of Climate Change, Editors: J. Qu and A. Powell. CRC Press. (in review)
Hilburn, K. A., and C.-L. Shie, 2011: Decadal trends and variability in Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) brightness temperatures and Earth incidence angle, report number 092811, Remote Sensing Systems, 53 pp. (Available online at:
Hilburn, K., and C.-L. Shie, 2011: Decadal trends and variability in Special Sensor Microwave / Imager (SSM/I) brightness temperatures and Earth incidence angle, Abstract IN21A-1418, the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting, 5-9 December 2011, San Francisco, CA, 2011.
Lai, Q., L. Wu, L., and C.-L. Shie, 2012: Sea Surface Response to Typhoon Morakot (2009) and the Influence on its Activity, Journal of Tropical Meteorology. (in press)
Shie, C.-L., and K. Hilburn, 2011: A newly revived satellite-based global air-sea surface turbulent fluxes dataset and its dependence on the SSM/I brightness temperature, the 2011 IEEE IGARSS, Vancouver, Canada, 25-29 July. Extended Abstract (4 pp), Proceedings (published in CD).
Shie, C.-L., and K. Hilburn, 2011: A satellite-based global ocean surface turbulent fluxes dataset and the impact of the associated SSM/I brightness temperature, the 2011 EUMESAT Meteorological Satellite Conference, Oslo, Norway, 5-9 September. Proceedings, 8 pp. (Available online at:
Shie, C.-L., K. Hilburn, & L. S. Chiu, R. Adler, I-I Lin, E. Nelkin, J. Ardizzone, S. Gao, A. Savtchenko, 2011: The Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes (GSSTF) Datasets and the uncertainties/impact due to the SSM/I brightness temperature, Abstract IN21A-1417, the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting, 5-9 December 2011, San Francisco, CA, 2011.
Shie, C.-L., and collaborators, 2012: The Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes (GSSTF) datasets: updates, improvements and applications, the 18th Conference on Satellite Meteorology, Oceanography and Climatology (SatMOC) Conference, New Orleans, LA, 22-26 Jan 2012. (invited talk) (Abstract available at http://ams.confex.com/ams/92Annual/webprogram/Paper192220.html)
Chou, S.-H., E. Nelkin, J. Ardizzone, R. Atlas, and C.-L. Shie (2003) Surface turbulent heat and momentum fluxes over global oceans based on the Goddard satellite retrieval, version 2 (GSSTF2). J. Climate, 16, pp. 3256-3273, 2003.
Hilburn, K. A., and C-L. Shie (2011a) The impact of incidence angle variations on climate trends from simple water vapor retrieval algorithms, The 2011 EUMETSAT Meteorological Satellite Conference, Oslo, Norway, 5-9 September, 2011.
Hilburn, K. A., and C.-L. Shie (2011b) Decadal trends and variability in Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) brightness temperatures and Earth incidence angle, report number 092811, Remote Sensing Systems, 53 pp.
Shie, C.-L., L. S. Chiu, R. Adler, P. Xie, I-I Lin, F.-C. Wang, E. Nelkin, R. Chokngamwong, W. S. Olson, and D. A. Chu (2009) A note on reviving the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes (GSSTF) dataset, Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 26(6), 1071-1080.
Shie, C.-L., (2010b) A recently revived dataset of satellite-based global air-sea surface turbulent fluxes (GSSTF2b) - features and applications, paper presented at 17th AMS Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography, Annapolis, MD.
Available online: http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/measures/documentation/2010-Sat-Air-S...
Shie, C.-L, and K. A. Hilburn, (2011) A Satellite-based Global Ocean Surface Turbulent Fluxes Dataset and the Impact of the Associated SSM/I Brightness Temperature, The 2011 EUMETSAT Meteorological Satellite Conference, Oslo, Norway, 5-9 September, 2011.
Shie, C.-L., K. A. Hilburn, L. S. Chiu, R. Adler, I-I Lin, E. Nelkin, and J. Ardizzone (2011) The Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Dataset --- Version 2c (GSSTF 2c). GSSTF2c of HDF-EOS5 format is scheduled for official distribution via NASA GES DISC by October 2011.
Extended Metadata Properties
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Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2011-10-04
Last DIF Revision Date: 2014-05-05
Future DIF Review Date: 2015-05-01