Aerial Photos of the 1940sEntry ID: USGS_SOFIA_aerial-photos
Abstract: The images are available as .jpeg and as georeferenced .tiff files. With the exception of three images, all images are subset to 7500 pixels square. Individual photos can be selected from the 1940 flight lines image at http://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/aerial-photos/40s_flight.html The numbering scheme for the aerial photos is an identification number consisting of the flight number followed by the ... photo or frame number.
A foundation for Everglades research must include a clear understanding of the pre-drainage south Florida landscape. Knowledge of the spatial organization and structure of pre-drainage landscape communities such as mangrove forests, marshes, sloughs, wet prairies. And pinelands, is essential to provide potential endpoints, restoration goals and performance measures to gauge restoration success. Information contained in historical aerial photographs of the Everglades can aid in this endeavor. The earliest known aerial photographs are from the mid-to-late 1920s and resulted in the production of what are called T-sheets (Topographic sheets) for the coasts and shorelines of far south Florida. The position of the boundary between differing vegetation communities (the ecotone) can be accurately measured. If followed through time, changes in the position of these ecotones could potentially be used to judge effects of drainage on the Everglades ecosystem and to monitor restoration success. The Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), a center of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Biological Resources Discipline (BRD), in collaboration with the Eastern Region Geography (ERG) of the Geography Discipline has created digital files of existing 1940 (1:40,000-scale) Black and White aerial photography for the South Florida region. These digital files are available through the SOFIA web site at http://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/aerial-photos/index.html
Data Set Citation
Dataset Originator/Creator: Smith, Thomas J. III Foster, Anne M., Briere, Peter R., Coffin, Alisa W., Jones, John W., Van Arsdall, Carson, Frye, Laurinda J.
Dataset Title: Aerial Photos of the 1940s
Dataset Release Date: 2006
Data Presentation Form: remote-sensing imageOnline Resource: http://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/aerial-photos/index.html
Start Date: 1940-02-14Stop Date: 1940-08-21
Quality The photos are all from a survey done by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1940
Areas 1-7 and 10 contain mosaic sheet images only, no over-flight images are available for viewing. Of the 1401 images are known to have existed in the 1940s set of aerial photographs. Only 920 distinct images were located and scanned. Of these 793 were rectified and 127 were ... not rectified. See tables at http://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/aerial-photos/40s_method.html for a list of photos not rectified and the problems preventing rectification. Of the rectified photos 79 images were not used due to protocol violations shown at http://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/aerial-photos/40s_method.html
The total RMSE for the transformation model was well below a threshold of 0.25.
Photographs were cataloged individually into Everglades Historical Aerial Photographic Database. Attribute information about each photograph was recorded, including identity, content, condition as well as general information about the flight and the photography.
Photographs were scanned using UMAX Mirage II Scanner: Scan resolution of optical 800 dpi; final radiometric resolution of 8-bit per channel; true color (RGB) compatibility; TIFF format output. Two images which were inadvertently scanned as grayscale are noted in the 'oddities' section at http://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/aerial-photos/40s_method.html
Scanned images were rectified using Erdas Imagine 8.7. Rectification process followed protocol developed in house and described in the report 'Guidelines for quality checking of digital ortho imagery, Issue 2.0.' Images were rectified with image to image rectification, using basemaps derived from digital orthophoto quarter quadrangles (DOQQs). The DOQQs were from a statewide set flown in 1995 and available for download from the Florida Department of Environmental Protection Land Boundary Information System (LABINS) website. These images were mosaicked into basemaps of four quadrangles, resampled to 2 meter pixel resolution and reprojected as UTM Zone 17 North. For a few images, the 1995 basemap images were unavailable or unusable and were rectified to a 1999 DOQQ. These are listed in the 'oddities' section.
To register the historic images, a first-order polynomial geometric model was used. Due to a variety of possible factors, such as the age and warping of the original media and irregularities of the camera (about which we had no information) or the flight, we found that a second-order polynomial model improved overall edge matching in some cases. Those images that used a second order polynomial geometric transformation model are listed in the 'oddities' section'.
Operators manually selected 10 to 15 tie points per image scattered evenly throughout the image. In some cases additional tie points were subsequently added automatically using the prediction function of Imagine. In all cases the total RMSE for the transformation model was well below a threshold of 0.25. Following the selection of tie points, images were resampled to 1 meter pixel resolution using a bilinear interpolation method. The resulting image was checked with respect to edge matching in a geographic data viewer (ESRI ArcMap 8.3).
Once the operator was satisfied the image was properly registered and appeared to match up with its neighbors, the edges of the image were cropped using a subset function. All images, with the exception of 3 (listed in the 'oddities' section were subset to a square of 7500 pixels and saved in their final file format as geotiff files. Oddities There are 1401 images that were known to have existed in the 1940s set of aerial photography. Of these, we were able to locate and scan 920 distinct images. Of these images, we were able to rectify 793 images.
Access Constraints None
Use Constraints Acknowledgement of the U.S. Geological Survey will be appreciated for products derived from these data.
This report was prepared by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees make any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, ... completeness, or usefulness of the information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed in this report, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Although the data published herein has been reviewed by the USGS, no warranty, expressed or implied, is made by the USGS as to the accuracy of the data and related material. Publication and distribution of these data should not be construed to constitute any such warranty and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not constitute or imply endorsement, recommendation, or favor by the United States Government or any agency thereof.
Data Set Progress
Distribution Size: 0.12
Distribution Format: georeferenced TIFF
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Phone: 727-803-8747 ext. 3130
Email: tom_j_smith at usgs.gov
U.S. Geological Survey 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
Province or State: FL
Postal Code: 33701
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Email: alicia.m.aleman at nasa.gov
Goddard Space Flight Center Code 610.2
Province or State: MD
Postal Code: 20771
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in The Everglades: The Ecosystem and Its Restoration, S. M. Davis and J. C. Ogden, editors
Blake, N. M. 1980, Land into water - water into land, Tallahassee, FL, University Presses of Florida
Davis, J. H. 1943, The natural features of southern Florida, Florida Geological Survey Bulletin, 25, Tallahassee, FL, Florida Geological Survey
Davis, S. M. Gunderson, L. H.; Park, W. A.; Richardson, J. R.; Mattson, J. E. 1994, Landscape dimension, composition, and function in a changing Everglades landscape, Delray Beach, FL, St. Lucie Press,
in The Everglades: The Ecosystem and Its Restoration, S. M. Davis and J.C. Ogden, editors
Steinman, A. D. Havens, K. E.; Carrick, H. J.; VanZee, R. 2002, The past, present, and future hydrology and ecology of Lake Okeechobee and its watersheds, Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press,
in The Everglades, Florida Bay, and Coral Reefs of the Florida Keys, J. W. Porter and K. G. Porter, editors
Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2007-04-03
Last DIF Revision Date: 2009-01-27