Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement Off-Project Water Program Sub-basin Analysis Flow StatisticEntry ID: USGS_FRESC_Klamath_flow
Abstract: VERSION 5/15/2012
HYDROLOGICAL INFORMATION PRODUCTS FOR THE OFF-PROJECT WATER PROGRAM OF THE KLAMATH BASIN RESTORATION AGREEMENT
By Daniel T. Snyder, John C. Risley, and Jonathan V. Haynes
The Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement (KBRA) was developed by a diverse group of stakeholders, Federal and State resource management agencies, Tribal representatives, and interest groups to provide ... a comprehensive solution to ecological and water-supply issues in the Klamath River Basin. The Off-Project Water Program (OPWP), one component of the KBRA, has as one of its purposes to permanently provide an additional 30,000 acre-ft of water per year on an average annual basis to Upper Klamath Lake through ?voluntary retirement of water rights or water uses or other means as agreed to by the Klamath Tribes, to improve fisheries habitat and also provide for stability of irrigation water deliveries? (Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement, 2010, p. 105?111). The geographic area where the water rights could be retired encompasses approximately 1,900 square mi. The OPWP area is defined as including the Sprague River drainage, the Sycan River drainage below Sycan Marsh, the Wood River drainage, and the Williamson River drainage from the abandoned town site of Kirk downstream to the confluence with the Sprague River. Extensive, broad, flat, poorly drained uplands, valleys, and wetlands characterize much of the study area. Irrigation is almost entirely used for pasture.
To assist parties in the OPWP involved with decision making and implementation, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Klamath Tribes, created five hydrological information products. These products include GIS digital maps and datasets containing spatial information on evapotranspiration, subirrigation indicators, water rights, subbasin streamflow statistics, and return flow indicators.
The evapotranspiration (ET) datasets were created under contract for this study by Evapotranspiration, Plus, LLC, of Twin Falls, Idaho. A high-resolution remote sensing technique known as Mapping Evapotranspiration at High Resolution and Internalized Calibration (METRIC) was used to create estimates of the spatial distribution of ET. The METRIC technique uses thermal infrared Landsat imagery to quantify actual evapotranspiration at a 30-m resolution that can be related to individual irrigated fields. Because evaporation uses heat energy, ground surfaces with large ET rates are left cooler as a result of ET than ground surfaces that have less ET. As a consequence, irrigated fields show up in the Landsat images as cooler than nonirrigated fields. Products produced from this study include total seasonal and total monthly (April?October) actual evapotranspiration maps for 2004 (a dry year) and 2006 (a wet year).
Maps showing indicators of natural subirrigation were also provided from this study. Subirrigation as used here is the evapotranspiration of shallow groundwater by plants with roots that penetrate to or near the water table. Subirrigation often occurs at locations with shallow water tables that are at or above the plant rooting depth. Natural consumptive use by plants diminishes the benefit of retiring water rights in subirrigated areas. Some agricultural production may be possible, however, on subirrigated lands for which water rights are retired. Because of the difficulty in precisely mapping and quantifying subirrigation, this study presents several sources of spatially mapped data that can be used as indicators of higher subirrigation probability. These include the floodplain boundaries defined by stream geomorphology, water table depth defined in Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soil surveys, and soil rooting depth defined in NRCS soil surveys.
The two water-rights mapping products created in the study were points of diversion (POD) and place of use (POU) for surface-water irrigation rights. To create these maps, all surface-water rights data, decrees, certificates, permits, and unadjudicated claims within the entire 1,900 square mi study area were aggregated into a common GIS geodatabase. Surface-water irrigation rights within a 5-mi buffer of the study area were then selected and identified. The POU area was then totaled by water right for primary and supplemental water rights. The maximum annual volume (acre-ft) allowed under each water right was also calculated using the POU area and duty (annual irrigation application in ft). In cases where a water right has more than one designated POD, the total volume for the water right was equally distributed to each POD listed for the water right. Because of this, mapped distribution of diversion rates for some rights may differ from actual practice.
Water-right information in the map products was from digital data sets obtained from the Oregon Water Resources Department and was, at the time acquired, the best available compilation of water-right information available. Because the completeness and accuracy of the water right data could not be verified, users are encouraged to check directly with the Oregon Water Resources Department where specific information on individual rights or locations is critical.
A dataset containing streamflow statistics for 72 subbasins in the study area was created for the study area. The statistics include annual flow durations (5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, and 95th percent exceedances) and 7-day, 10-year (7Q10) and 7-day, 2-year (7Q2) low flows, and were computed using regional regression equations based on measured streamflow records in the region. Daily streamflow records used were adjusted as needed for crop consumptive use; therefore the statistics represent streamflow under more natural conditions as though irrigation diversions did not exist. Statistics are provided for flow rates resulting from streamflow originating from within the entire drainage area above the subbasin pour point (referring to the outlet of the contributing drainage basin). The statistics were computed for the purpose of providing decision makers with an estimate of streamflow that would be expected after water conservation techniques have been implemented or a water right has been retired.
A final product from the study is a series of datasets of indicators of the potential for subsurface return flow of irrigation water from agricultural areas to nearby streams. The datasets contain information on factors such as proximity to surface-water features, geomorphic floodplain characteristics, and depth to water.
Purpose: Streamflow statistics were computed for the purpose of providing decision makers with an estimate of streamflow that would be expected after water conservation techniques have been implemented or a water use has been retired.
Data Set Citation
Dataset Originator/Creator: Daniel T. Snyder
Dataset Title: Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement Off-Project Water Program Sub-basin Analysis Flow Statistic
Dataset Release Date: 2012
Dataset Release Place: Reston, VA
Dataset Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Data Presentation Form: Vector digital data
Start Date: 2012-01-01Stop Date: 2012-12-31
SOLID EARTH > GEOMORPHIC LANDFORMS/PROCESSES > FLUVIAL LANDFORMS > WATERSHED/DRAINAGE BASINS
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > SURFACE WATER > SURFACE WATER PROCESSES/MEASUREMENTS > RUNOFF
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > SURFACE WATER > SURFACE WATER PROCESSES/MEASUREMENTS > RUNOFF > RUNOFF RATE
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > SURFACE WATER > SURFACE WATER PROCESSES/MEASUREMENTS > RUNOFF > TOTAL RUNOFF
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > SURFACE WATER > WATERSHED CHARACTERISTICS
BIOSPHERE > ECOSYSTEMS > FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS > RIVERS/STREAM
Most basin characteristics in this feature class were used to develop regression equations by Risley and others (2008). Information on the source and resolution of these characteristics can be found in Table 5 of Risley and others (2008) at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2008/5126/sir20085126_tables.xls
Flow statistics were calculated from regression ... equations that assume natural flow conditions and may not reflect actual flows. Flow statistics were calculated using regression equations for Region 8 of Risley and Others (2008). Risley and Others (2008) report that:
Based on equations for Region 8 for annual and monthly flow statistics (a total of 13 values as indicated in table 14 of Risley and others, 2008), the standard errors of estimate of the high flow (5th percentile) and low flow (95th percentile) equations had medians of 82 and 109 percent, respectively. The adjusted coefficient of determination (R2adj) of the 5th and 95th percentile equations had medians of 0.75 and 0.75, respectively. For the low-flow frequency equations the standard errors of prediction of the equations for the 7Q2 and 7Q10 statistics had medians of 116 and 131 percent, respectively. The adjusted coefficients of determination (R2adj) of the 7Q2 and 7Q10 equations had medians of 0.74 and 0.72, respectively.
Many of the regression equations for locations in eastern Oregon are hampered by a sparser density of long-term streamflow stations, a high degree of streamflow variability, and a disproportionate amount of water use relative to streamflow. As such, careful consideration should be given to the prediction intervals when evaluating equation results for Regions 5-8, especially for low-flow equations. Depending on the level of accuracy needed, users should consider supplementing flow-statistic estimates made from the regression equations with estimates made using the drainage-area ratio, and partial-record site methods. Additional flow data collected from seepage runs along the stream upstream and downstream of the ungaged site of interest could provide an improved estimate of low-flow statistics (Riggs, 1972).
Data precision is decreased with regression equations that contain basin characteristics data created from GIS datasets. Computer generated tabular data typically are presented with arbitrary fixed decimal points. The precision of these data cannot always be assumed. Final flow statistics estimated from regression equations that were created from measured flow data and GIS data should not be presented with a level of precision greater than 3 significant figures.
More detail on the accuracy of the regression equations can be obtained from Risley and Others (2008):
Risley, John, Stonewall, Adam, and Haluska, Tana, 2008, Estimating flow-duration and low-flow frequency statistics for unregulated streams in Oregon: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2008-5126, 22 p. Available at: http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2008/5126/.
Attribute_Accuracy_Explanation: See Accuracy Report
The sub-basin polygons are based on raster representations of drainage basins and are assumed to be topologically correct.
Completeness_Report: Data are complete
Access Constraints None
Use Constraints The U.S. Geological Survey should be acknowledged as the data source in products derived from these data
Data Set Progress
Distribution Format: MS XP Version 5.1 (Build 2600) Service Pack 3; ESRI ArcGIS 10.0.2.3200
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Email: dtsnyder at usgs.gov
2130 SW 5th Avenue
Province or State: Oregon
Postal Code: 97201-4976
Extended Metadata Properties
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Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2013-10-10
Last DIF Revision Date: 2017-08-23