[Parameters: Topic='OCEANS', Term='SALINITY/DENSITY', Variable_Level_1='SALINITY']
Average sea surface salinity in latitude bands: 40-50 deg S, 50-60 deg S, 60 deg S-continentEntry ID: SOE_sea_surface_salinity
Abstract: This indicator is no longer maintained, and is considered OBSOLETE.
Measurements of sea surface salinity in the Southern Ocean. Measurements are averaged over latitude bands: 40-50 deg S, 50-60 deg S, 60 deg S-continent.
TYPE OF INDICATOR
There are three types of indicators used in this report:
1.Describes the CONDITION of important elements of a system;
2.Show the extent of ... the major PRESSURES exerted on a system;
3.Determine RESPONSES to either condition or changes in the condition of a system.
This indicator is one of: CONDITION
RATIONALE FOR INDICATOR SELECTION
Australian and Antarctic climate and marine living resources are sensitive to the distribution of ocean salinity. Sea surface values are relatively easy to monitor, and therefore can be used as a relevant indicator of the state of the ocean environment.
The information provided by long records of sea surface salinity is needed to detect changes in the Southern Ocean resulting from climate change; to test climate model predictions; to develop an understanding of links between the Ocean and climate variability in Australia; and for sustainable development of marine resources.
DESIGN AND STRATEGY FOR INDICATOR MONITORING PROGRAM
Spatial scale: Southern Ocean: 40 deg S to the Antarctic continent
Frequency: Monthly averages over summer
Measurement technique: Measurements of sea surface salinity from Antarctic supply ships.
Sea surface salinity has not been previously used as a spatially averaged environmental indicator. Some experimentation with past data are required to define the most appropriate averaging strategy.
New technologies like profiling Argo floats need to be exploited to provide better spatial and temporal coverage of salinity in the Southern Ocean.
LINKS TO OTHER INDICATORS
Sea surface temperature
Sea ice extent and concentration
Data Set Citation
Dataset Originator/Creator: Rintoul, S.
Dataset Title: Average sea surface salinity in latitude bands: 40-50 deg S, 50-60 deg S, 60 deg S-continent
Dataset Series Name: CAASM Metadata
Dataset Release Date: 2013-07-24
Dataset Publisher: Australian Antarctic Data Centre
Version: 1Online Resource: https://data.aad.gov.au/metadata/records/SOE_sea_surface_salinity
Start Date: 1991-01-01Stop Date: 2002-01-01
Latitude Resolution: 1000 Kilometre(s)
Temporal Resolution: 30 Day(s)
Quality This indicator is now OBSOLETE. These data are no longer archived in this location, and are therefore not up-to-date.
Salinity varies systematically across the Southern Ocean, as a series of fronts are crossed from north to south. Averaging sea surface values in latitude bands corresponding to each front provides a sensitive indicator of change. Complementary measurements obtained from research cruises and from free-floating profiling floats (e.g. the Argo program) assist in the interpretation of the surface measurements.
Access Constraints The data from this indicator are available for download from the provided URL.
Use Constraints This data set conforms to the CCBY Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Please follow instructions listed in the citation reference provided at http://data.aad.gov.au/aadc/metadata/citation.cfm?entry_id=SOE_sea_... when using these data.
Data Set Progress
Distribution Media: HTTP
Distribution Size: 3 kb
Distribution Format: csv
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Phone: +61 3 6232 5393
Fax: +61 3 6232 5123
Email: steve.rintoul at csiro.au
CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research GPO BOX 1538
Province or State: Tasmania
Postal Code: 7001
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Australian Antarctic Division 203 Channel Highway
Province or State: Tasmania
Postal Code: 7050
Extended Metadata Properties
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Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2001-09-27
Last DIF Revision Date: 2019-04-11