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Global Change Master Directory (GCMD)
11,000 Year Sunspot Number Reconstruction
Entry ID: NOAA_NCDC_PALEO_2005-015


Summary
Abstract: From http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/pubs/solanki2004/solanki2004.html

Direct observations of sunspot numbers are available for the past
four centuries, but longer time series are required, for example,
for the identification of a possible solar influence on climate and
for testing models of the solar dynamo. Here we report a
reconstruction of the sunspot number covering the past 11,400
years, based on dendrochronologically dated radiocarbon concentrations.
We combine physics-based models for each of the
processes connecting the radiocarbon concentration with sunspot
number. According to our reconstruction, the level of solar
activity during the past 70 years is exceptional, and the previous
period of equally high activity occurred more than 8,000 years
ago. We find that during the past 11,400 years the Sun spent only
of the order of 10% of the time at a similarly high level of
magnetic activity and almost all of the earlier high-activity
periods were shorter than the present episode. Although the
rarity of the current episode of high average sunspot numbers
may indicate that the Sun has contributed to the unusual climate
change during the twentieth century, we point out that solar
variability is unlikely to have been the dominant cause of the
strong warming during the past three decades.

The series of reconstructed 10-yr averaged sunspot numbers with their 68%
uncertainty. Years are given BP (before present), i.e. the calendar AD year,
Yad, is related to the BP year, Ybp, as Yc=1950-Ybp. The tabulated years
correspond to centers of the corresponding 10-year intervals. Negative values
are artifacts and are consistent with zero within the error limits.

Related URL
Link: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
Description: Documentation and further information on sunspot number reconstruction

Geographic Coverage
 N: 90.0 S: -90.0  E: 180.0  W: -180.0

Data Set Citation
Dataset Creator: Solanki, S.K., I.G. Usoskin, B. Kromer, M. Schussler and J. Beer
Dataset Title: 11,000 Year Sunspot Number Reconstruction
Dataset Series Name: IGBP PAGES/WDCA CONTRIBUTION SERIES NUMBER: 2005-015
Dataset Release Date: February 2005
Dataset Release Place: Boulder, CO
Dataset Publisher: IGBP PAGES/World Data Center for Paleoclimatology
Issue Identification: 2005-015
Online Resource: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/pubs/solanki2004/solanki2004.html


Paleo_Temporal_Coverage
Paleo Start Date: 11,000 ybp
Paleo Stop Date: 0 ybp
Chrono Unit:


Location Keywords
GEOGRAPHIC REGION > GLOBAL


Data Resolution
Temporal Resolution: decadal


Science Keywords
PALEOCLIMATE >LAND RECORDS >RADIOCARBON    [Definition]
PALEOCLIMATE >LAND RECORDS >TREE RINGS    [Definition]
SUN-EARTH INTERACTIONS >SOLAR ACTIVITY >SUNSPOTS    [Definition]
PALEOCLIMATE >PALEOCLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS >SOLAR FORCING/INSOLATION RECONSTRUCTION    [Definition]


ISO Topic Category
CLIMATOLOGY/METEOROLOGY/ATMOSPHERE
GEOSCIENTIFIC INFORMATION


Project
IGBP >International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme    [Information]
PAGES >Past Global Changes, IGBP    [Information]


Keywords
sunspot reconstruction
sunspot numbers
climate
solar variability


Data Set Progress
COMPLETE


Originating Center
NOAA/NCDC


Data Center
World Data Center for Paleoclimatology, Boulder    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/

Data Center Personnel
Name: WDC/PALEOCLIMATOLOGY, BOULDER
Phone: +1 (303) 497-6160
Fax: +1 (303) 497-6513
Email: paleo at noaa.gov
Contact Address:
World Data Center for Paleoclimatology
NOAA/NCDC Code E/GCx3
325 Broadway
City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80303
Country: USA



Distribution
Distribution_Media: online ftp
Distribution_Format: ASCII
Fees: None


Personnel
S. K. SOLANKI
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Contact Address:
Max-Planck-Institut fur Sonnensystemforschung
City: Katlenburg-Lindau
Postal Code: 37191
Country: Germany


ILYA USOSKIN
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: +358-503441247
Email: ilya.usoskin at oulu.fi
Contact Address:
SGO-OTY, PL3000, University of Oulu
City: Oulu
Postal Code: 90014
Country: Finland


M. SCHUSSLER
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Contact Address:
Max-Planck-Institut fur Sonnensystemforschung
City: Katlenburg-Lindau
Postal Code: 37191
Country: Germany


J. BEER
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Contact Address:
Department of Surface Waters
EAWAG
City: Dubendorf
Postal Code: 8600
Country: Switzerland


B. KROMER
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Contact Address:
Institut fur Umweltphysik
Universtat Heidelberg
City: Heidelberg
Postal Code: D-69120
Country: Germany


Publications/References
Solanki, S.K., I.G. Usoskin, B. Kromer, M. Schussler and J. Beer. 2004. An
unusually active Sun during recent decades compared to the previous 11,000
years. Nature, Vol. 431, No. 7012, pp.1084-1087, 28 October 2004.
Extended Metadata Properties
(Click to view more)

Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2005-03-03
Last DIF Revision Date: 2017-08-23



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