[Science_Parameters: Science_Category='EARTH SCIENCE', Science_Topic='TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE', Science_Term='WATER QUALITY/WATER CHEMISTRY', Science_Variable_Level_1='CONTAMINANTS']
SERAFM - A Process-Based, Steady-State Modeling SystemEntry ID: EPA_SERAFM
Abstract: SERAFM is a steady-state, process based mercury cycling model designed specifically to assist a risk assessor or researcher in estimating mercury concentrations in the water column, sediment, and fish tissue for a given water body for a specified watershed. SERAFM predicts mercury concentrations in these media for the species Hg0, HgII, and MeHg. The model runs three simultaneous scenarios. One ... scenario is for historically contaminated sediment, where the total mercury concentration in sediments is known. This scenario would be effective, for example, for modelling a Superfund site where the sediment is acting as a loading source to the system. In this first case, the total mercury concentration in the sediment is entered into the model as a known parameter. The second scenario is a hypothetical background or reference condition, which is defined as the condition as if no historical loading of mercury had occurred at this site. Therefore, the mercury concentrations in water and sediment are calculated with no known mercury sediment concentration, but rather the total mercury concentration sediment is directly calculated by the model. Mercury loadings to the water body come from atmospheric deposition and watershed erosion and runoff, and, in this scenario, the water body sediments act as a sink rather than a possible source to the system. Using the calculated results of these two scenarios, a third scenario is run as a proposed, possible sediment clean-up goal using a linear interpolation of the calculated sediment concentration and the hazard indices of the identified most sensitive species as a gauge for the proposed clean-up sediment concentration. Then, from this information, the concentrations of mercury in the water body and fish tissue are calculated, and wildlife and human hazard indices are calculated. The series of sub-modules within SERAFM include: mercury loading (watershed and atmospheric deposition); abiotic and biotic solids balance (soil erosion, settling, burial, and resuspension), equilibrium partitioning; water body mercury processes; and wildlife risk calculations.
Quality SERAFM has undergone peer review both externally and internally. SERAFM has been reviewed by two USEPA federal employees as well as one academic reviewer.
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Email: Knightes.Chris at epa.gov
Ecosystems Research Division National Ecosystems Research Laboratory Office of Research Development U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 960 College Station Rd
Province or State: GA
Postal Code: 30605
Knightes, C.D. 2007. Development and test application of a screening-level mercury fate model and tool for evaluating wildlife exposure risk for surface waters with mercury-contaminated sediments (SERAFM). Environmental Modelling & Software. 23:495-510.
Brown, S., Saito, L., Knightes, C.D., Gustin, M. 2007. Calibration and Evaluation of a Mercury Model for a Western Stream and Constructed ... Wetland. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 182(1-4):275-290.
Knightes, C.D. and R. B. Ambrose. 2006. Development of An Ecological Risk Assessment Methodology for Assessing Wildlife Exposure Risk Associated With Mercury-Contaminated Sediments in Lake and River Systems. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA. Publication No. EPA/600/R-06/073.
US EPA. 2005. Regulatory Impact Analysis of the Clean Air Mercury Rule. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Air Quality Strategies and Standards Division. Chapter 3: Ecosystem Scale Modeling for Mercury Benefits Analysis and Appendix A: Mercury Load Reduction Analysis and Response. EPA-452/R-05-003. March.
Knightes, C.D. SERAFM: An Ecological Risk Assessment Tool for Evaluating Wildlife Exposure Risk Associated with Mercury-Contaminated Sediment in Lake and River Systems. Presented at EPA Science Forum 2005, Washington, DC, May 16 - 18, 2005.
Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. 2005. Human Health Risk Assessment Protocol for Hazardous Waste Combustion Facilities. September. Chapter 2: Characterizing Facility Emissions. EPA530-R-05-006.
Brown, S. 2006. Modeling Mercury Behavior in a Contaminated Desert Stream and Constructed Wetland. M.S. Thesis. University of Nevada, Reno. February 14.
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